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JUKI 33, igaj 









Christianity of To-da y Series 

GOD— An Inquiry Into the Nature of Man' s 
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the Third Unaltered Edition by W. J. 
Whitby, D. D. Circa 85 pp. Boards. 50 
cents net. (2s. 6d.) net. 

PARALIPOMENA. Remains of Gospels and 
Sayings of Christ, by Rev. Bernhard Pick, 
Ph. D.. D. D. 171 pp. Boards. 75 cents net. 
(3s. 6d.) net. 

The Open Court Publishing Co. 

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THE New Looia uf Jesus. (1897) 






Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 


JUNE 23, 1022 

Copyright 1908 





From the matter which is here presented, es- 
pecially in the first part, we learn that numerous 
gospels circulated in the early Church. But we 
also know that toward the end of the second cen- 
tury, the same four gospels which we have still are 
found recognized in the Church, and are repeatedly 
quoted as the writings of the apostles, and disciples 
of the apostles, whose names they bear, by the 
three most ecclesiastical teachers — Irenaeus, in 
Gaul, Clement in Alexandria, and Tertullian in Car- 
thage. True, that gospels which were used by he- 
retical parties, were sometimes appealed to also by 
orthodox teachers, but the four were, at that time, 
and from that time downward, considered as the 
peculiarly trustworthy foundation on which the 
Christian faith rested. The reasons assigned by 
Irenaeus in his work against heresies, why there 
are exactly four gospels, neither more nor less, are 
these : " the gospel is the pillar of the Church ; the 
church is spread over the whole world; the world 
has four quarters; therefore it is fitting there 
should also be four gospels. Again, the gospel 
is the divine breath, or wind of life for men; there 
are four chief winds, therefore four gospels." He 
builds another argument on the fourfold appear- 



ance of the cherubim. " The cherubim," he says, 
" are fourfold, and their faces are images of the ac- 
tivity of the Son of God. The first beast was Hke 
a lion, signifying his commanding and kingly dig- 
nity; the second like a calf, signifying his priestly 
office; the third like a man, denoting his incarna- 
tion; the fourth like an eagle, denoting the Holy 
Spirit, flying over the church. Like these are the 
gospels. John, who begins with the Godhead and 
descent from the Father, is the lion; Luke, who 
begins with the priesthood and sacrifice of Zach- 
arias, is the calf; Matthew, who begins with his 
human genealogy, the man; Mark, the eagle, who 
commences with the announcement of the pro- 
phetic spirit — * The beginning of the gospel as it 
is written by Isaiah the prophet ' '' (III, 9-1 1 ). 

But there can be no doubt that besides the 
canonical gospels others were also current, which 
contained an outline of the doctrine of Christianity. 
This can be inferred from Luke's prologue to his 
gospel (I, 1-4), and more especially from Origen's 
comment thereon. Says he : " The phrase ' have 
taken in hand ' implies a tacit accusation of those 
who rushed hastily to write gospels without the 
grace of the Holy Spirit. Matthew and Mark and 
Luke and John did not ' take in hand ' to write their 
gospels, but wrote them being full of the Holy 
Spirit. . . . The Church has four gosi:)els, 
heresies very many, of which one is entitled ' ac- 
cording to the Egyptians,' another * according to 
the twelve Apostles.' . . . Four gospels only 


are. approved, out of which we must bring forth 
points of teaching under the person of our Lord 
and Saviour. There is I know a gospel which is 
called ' according to Thomas,' and one * according 
to Matthias ' ; and there are many others which 
we read, lest we should seem to be unacquainted 
with any point for the sake of those who think they 
possess some valuable knowledge if they are ac- 
quainted with them. But in all these we approve 
nothing else but that which the Church approves, 
that is four gospels only as proper to be received." 

Now, some of the false gospels were probably 
only a true gospel altered to suit the views of a 
particular man or sect or party. We know that 
Marcion's gospel was an altered Luke, Basilides 
may perhaps have made Matthew his basis, and 
Apelles is said to have made similar use of John. 
Some of the gospels, themselves originally apoc- 
ryphal, were certainly reissued with changes ac- 
cording to the ideas of successive editors. The 
numerous extant gospels of the Nativity are only 
recensions or editions of the Protevangel or " Gos- 
pel of James.'' There are several of those ancient 
gospels of which we know only the names, and it 
is supposed that many of them are the same book 
under different names. We know something of 
the Gospel of the Nazarenes and of the Gospel of 
the Ebionites, and we have reason to believe that 
those, as well as of the Gospels of Bartholomew, 
of Cerinthus, and of the Twelve Apostles were re- 
censions of the gospel of the Hebrews. 


Again it is probable that several of the so-called 
gospels were compilations from the canonical gos- 
pels. Tatian's Diatessaron was an avowed har- 
mony, and it did not stand alone. The book which 
Serapion found in circulation in Rhossus, profes- 
sing to be the Gospel of Peter, seems to have been 
a harmony of the gospel narratives, but with 
Docetic additions. Jerome, followed by the de- 
cree of Gelasius, condemns the codices of Hesy- 
chius and Lucian, which seem to have been some 
kind of harmony, with additions. 

There can be no doubt that many facts about 
the Lord and sayings of Him which we meet with in 
patristic literature, were handed down by tradi- 
tion, and if we had the lost five books of Papias, 
bishop of Hierapolis, in Asia Minor, which he is 
said to have written about the year 140 A. D., we 
should probably know more. But except the title 
and a few scraps in Irenaeus and Eusebius, and 
in writers long after their time, we really know 
nothing about the books of this old chronicler. 
The title of his treatise was "An Exposition (or 
Expositions) of the Oracles of the Lord"; and 
it seems to have been a collection of our Lord's 
most important sayings and doings, with Papias' s 
own commentary, and certain additions to corrob- 
orate the commentary — these additions being 
drawn from what Papias had collected as unwrit- 
ten reminiscences. The importance of the book 
lies in the fact that Papias, like Polycarp, was a 
link between the apostolic age and that of Irenaeus. 

I>REFAC£ vii 

The first words of Papias (Eusebius, Hist. Eccles, 
III, 39, 3ff.) are these: ** I shall not scruple 
also to set down for you, along with my interpre- 
tations what things I well learned from the elders, 
and well recorded (or remembered), being well 
assured as of the truth concerning them. For I 
was not in the habit of taking delight, like the many, 
in those having much to say, but in those teaching 
the truth; nor in those recalling the precepts of 
strangers, but in those recalling the things given by 
the Lord to faith, and proceeding from the truth it- 
self. And if anywhere there chanced also to come 
one who had been in company with the elders, I 
inquired into thQ words of the elders: what An- 
drew or what Peter said, or what Philip or what 
Thomas (said), or James; or what John or Mat- 
thew or some other one of the disciples of the Lord 
(said) : which things Aristion and John the elder 
say. For I did not account myself so much in- 
debted to the things which come from books as 
to those which come from the loving and abiding 

There can be no reasonable doubt that from a 
natural interpretation of his words we learn that 
at the time when Papias wrote Aristion and the 
presbyter John were living and adding to his stock 
of reminiscences. At a later period in his narra- 
tive Eusebius tells us that Papias had received a 
wonderful narrative from the daughters of Philip 
the apostle, that in their time a dead woman had 
been raised, namely, the mother of Manaimus 


(Manaen, Acts XIII, i), also that Justus Barsabas 
(Acts I, 23) drank a deadly thing, and it did not 
hurt him (see Mark XVI, 18). 

Papias's work contained not only notices of the 
apostles about the Lord, but also much concerning 
the apostles. But when we compare the canonical 
with the extra-canonical gospels, it must be ac- 
knowledged that the Church of the second century 
acted in a very judicious manner in the selection 
of that which was appropriate for the divine serv- 
ice and for reading. The Church on the whole 
showed a good sense for the genuine and original. 
But when we meet in the extra-canonical gospels 
with traits which are homogeneous to the Christ- 
picture of the gospels, let us not disregard them, 
but rather look upon them, though cautiously, as 
an enrichment of the same. 

The reader will now understand why we have 
prepared this collection. For in a certain sense 
we follow the injunction of Jesus : ** Gather up 
the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.'* 
(John VI, 12.) The fragments here presented are 
of sufficient interest, and their study no mere liter- 
ary curiosity nor a barren study. For as the late 
Bishop Westcott said : " There are some fragments 
which appear to contain true and original traits of 
the Lord's teaching, and as such are invested with 
the greatest interest." 

We turn now to that part of our work which 
contains the extra-canonical gospel sayings. There 
is no doubt that throughout the first century, and 


even in the early second century, there was a liv- 
ing tradition of the life of Jesus, which, apart from 
our gospels, continued to hand down and to circu- 
late utterances of Jesus which are not contained in 
our canonical gospels. These extra-canonical say- 
ings of Jesus are very numerous. 

The first who called attention to such extra- 
canonical sayings of Jesus was the French scholar 
Cotelier (d. 1686), the learned editor of the 
Apostolic Fathers and other patristic writings. He 
was followed by the Oxford theologian Grabe (d. 
171 1 ), and by scholars like Fabricius (d. 1736), 
Lardner (d. 1768), and others. 

In 1776 Korner published his De sermonibus 
Christi agraphois, and since that time the term 
" agrapha ^' has been applied by way of conven- 
ience, to extra-canonical sayings of Jesus. The 
agrapha-collection reached its climax in the work 
of Alfred Resch, Agrapha. Ausserkanonische Evan- 
gelicnfragmente (in Texte und Untersuchungen V, 
4, 1889). In this monumental work Resch col- 
lected a vast material from sources not so easily 
accessible to those who live not in the neighborhood 
of large theological libraries. Following Resch, 
Nestle published in 1896 a collection of Agrapha in 
his Novi Testamenti Graeci Supplementum, in which 
he gives 2y Agrapha, which he considers as genuine 
and calls them " Dicta Salvatoris Agrapha." In 
the same year. Ropes published his Die Sprilche 
Jesu, eine Kritische Bearbcitung des von A, Resch 
gesammelten Materials (forming part of vol. XIV 


of the texts published by von Gebhardt and Har- 
nack). The result of Ropes' critique is that of the 
154 Agrapha which he treats, only ten have any 
real value. This was before the discovery and pub- 
lication of the Oxyrhynchus Logia by Grenfell 
and Hunt in 1897. The result of this publication 
was a new agrapha-literature, as may be seen from 
the bibliography which comprises works in the 
French, German, Dutch, Italian and English lan- 
guages. The first — as far as we are aware — 
to publish a collection of Agrapha was the Eng- 
lish scholar B. Jackson, author of twenty-five 
Agrapha, London, 1900, which includes besides 
twenty-two older sayings, three of the Oxyrhynchus 
Logia. In 1901 (2ded. 1905) Preuschen published 
his Antilegomena, in which he gives besides the 
Logia more than forty Agrapha. 

In 1904 Klostermann issued a collection of 
eighty-eight Agrapha (forming Part 11 of the 
Kleine Texte fiir theologische Vorlesungen und 
Uebungen, edited by Lietzmann). Both Preuschen 
and Klostermann only give the text. The work of 
Resch being out of print for some time, a new 
revised and enlarged edition was published in 1906. 

With these works before us we undertook the 
present for English readers. The number of " say- 
ings" is much larger, than in any of those men- 
tioned before. The reader will have noticed that 
there is no agreement among scholars as to the 
number of Agrapha. The opinion can only be 
subjective. What the one adopts the other re- 


jects, and on this account the reader will find here 
more than in any other work. As to the mode of 
the quotations we adopted the alphabetical order 
of authors and authorities from which a saying has 
been taken. 

For the benefit of the student we give the 
Kerygma or Preaching of Peter complete, distin- 
guishing those parts which belong not to our sub- 
ject by putting them within [ ]. For the same 
reason we added in the appendix the Apocalypse 
of Peter, and thus the reader has the Gosi>el, 
Kerygma and Apocalypse of Peter in one volume. 
The student who wishes to compare the Greek text, 
will find it in a convenient form in Apocrypha I 
(i903)> edited by Klostermann and forming part 
of the Lietzmann series published for theological 

That I have included a few sayings from the 
Koran and Muhammedan writers as well as from 
the Talmud, will not surprise, because these say- 
ings rest mainly on Christian tradition. 

As concerns the bibliography we doubt whether 
the student will find it in such a complete manner 
in any other work. 

To sum up : the pardonable hyperbole of the con- 
clusion of St. John's Gospel, whether his own 
postscript or the addition of a nearly contemporary 
editor, suggests the consciousness of the end of the 
first century that the known material was not ex- 
hausted in known writings. 

B. P. 

Newark, N. J., February, 1908. 




I. The Gospel According to the Hebrews . . . i 

H. The Gospel of the Ebionites 14 

III. The Gospel of the Egyptians 19 

IV. The Gospel of Thomas 22 

V. Matthias Traditions 24 

VL The Gospel of Philip 27 

VII. The Gospel of Eve 29 

VIII. The Fayum-Fragment 30 

IX. The Oxyrhynchus Finds 31 

a. The Gospel-Fragments 32 

b. The Oxyrhynchus Logia 34 

X. The Gospel of Peter 40 

XI. Four Coptic Gospel Fragments .53 

XII. Some Manuscript-Readings 60 

XIII. Scattered Sayings From : 65 

1. Abgari Epistula 65 

2. Acts of John 65 

3. Acta Philippi 65 

4. Actus Petri 66 

5. Addai Doctrina 66 

6. Agathangelus 66 

7. Ambrose 66 

8. Anast. Sinaita 67 

9. Ancient Syriac Documents 67 


XIII. Scattered Sayings From : p^^^^ 

10. Apelles 67 

11. Aphraates . 67 

12. Apostolic Church Ordinances .... 68 

13. Apostolic Constitutions 69 

14. Athenagoras * .... 71 

15. Augustine . . . . ^2 

16. Barnabas ^2 

17. Cassian ^2 

18. Cassiodorus 72 

19. Clemens Alex. Protrept "JZ 

" " Stromata ^z> 74, 75 

" " Excerpta 76 

" " Eclogae 77 

20. Clemens Romanus I, II 77f 7^ 

21. Clementine Homilies 78-80 

22. Codex Askew 81 

23. Dialogus de recta fide 81 

24. Didache 81 

25. Didascalia 82, 83 

26. Didymus 2^ 

27. Ephraem Syrus 83-85 

28. Epiphanius 85 

29. Euthymius Zigabenus 85 

30. Hieronymus 86 

31. Jeu, Book of 86 

32. Ignatius 87 

33. Irenaeus 88-92 

34. Justin 92, 93 

35. Kerygma Petri 93-98 

36. Koran and Muhammedan Writers . . . 98-103 
2f7, Liturgies 103 

38. Macarius 103 

39. Old English Homilies 104 


XIII. Scattered Sayings From : p^cE 

40. Origen ... 104-107 

41. Philippus 107 

42. Pistis Sophia 107, 108 

43. Polycarp 108 

44. Pseudo-Cyprian 109 

de duobus montibus. 

de aleatoribus. 
de singularitate. 

45. Pseudo-Ignatius no 

to the Magnesians. 

to the Trallians. 

46. Pseudo-Linus no, in 

47. Salvianus in 

48. Sergius in 

49. Talmud 112-114 

50. Tertullianus 114 

51. Theod. Balsamo 114 

52. Theodotus Monachus 115 

53. Vita Schnudi 115 

XIV. Appendix 115 

I. The Apocalypse of Peter 115 

II. Bibliography 126 

Index .153 



J. Patristic Notices. 

a. (The Ebionites) use only the gospel of Matthew 

and reject the Apostle Paul, calling him an 
apostate from the law. 

Irenseus I, 26, 2. 

b. These (the Ebionites) imagine that they must re- 

ject all epistles of Paul, since they call him an 
apostate from the law ; by using only the gospel 
of the Hebrews, they have little regard for the 

Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. HI, 2y, 4. 

c. Writings of Symmachus ^ are still current in 

which he seems to support the doctrine laid 
down (by the Ebionites) by following the gos- 
pel of Matthew. 

Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. VI. 17. . 

d. With these (the writings received by the Church) 

some also numbered the gospel of the Hebrews, 
which was especially popular with Jews con- 
verted to Christ. 

1 On Symmachus, who is also known as translator of the 
Old Test, into Greek, see Pick art, in McClintock and Strong's 
Cyclop, s. V. 


Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. Ill, 25, 5. 

e. He (Hegesippus) mentions also some things 

from the gospel of the Hebrews, from the 
Syriac (gospel), and from the Hebrew. 
Eusebius, Hist, Eccles, IV, 22, 8. 

f. The gospel of the Hebrews has 2,200 stichoi.^ 

Nicephorus Stichometra (see Preuschen, Anal- 
ecta (1893), p. 157,49). 

2, Remains, 

1. (Matt II, 5) ''In Bethlehem of Judaea." This 

is a clerical error. For I believe that the 
evangelist originally wrote as it is in the He- 
brew text (i. e., Micah V, i) "Judah,'' not 
" Judaea." 

Hieronymus in Matt, II, 5. 

2. (Matt. II, 15, 23). Now this Hebrew (viz. 

Matthew) is preserved to this day in the library 
at Csesarea, which Pamphilus the Martyr ^ so 
diligently collated. I also obtained permission 
of the Nazarenes of Beraea in Syria, who use 
this volume, to make a copy of it. In which it 
is to be observed that, throughout, the evange- 
list when quoting the witness of the Old Testa- 
ment, either in his own person or in that of the 
Lord and Saviour, does not follow the author- 
ity of the Seventy translators, but the He- 
brew Scriptures, from which he quotes these 
two sayings : " Out of Egypt have I called my 

1 Our canonical gospel of Matthew has 2,500 stichoi. 

2 Died 307 A. D. 


Son " (II, 15)/ and, " hence he shall be called 
a Nazarene." (II, 23).^ 

Hieronymus, De viris inlustribus III 
(ed. Bernoulli (1895), p. 8 sq. 

3. (Matt. Ill, 13). In the Gospel of the Hebrews 
which is written in the Syro-Chaldaic tongue 
but in Hebrew characters, which the Naza- 
renes make use of at this day, and which is also 
called the " Gospel of the Apostles," or as 
many think, " that of Matthew,'' and which 
is in the library of Csesarea, the following nar- 
rative is given : " Behold, the mother of the 
Lord and His brethren said unto Him, John 
the Baptist baptizeth for the remission of sins ; 
let us go and be baptized of him. But He 
said : " What have I committed, that I should 
be baptized of him, unless it be that in saying 
this I am in ignorance." 

Hieronymus, Contra Pelagium III, 2. 

4.. Matt. Ill, 16 sq.). But in the gospel which is 
written in Hebrew and which the Nazarenes 
read, " the whole fountain of the Holy Spirit 
shall descend upon Him." And the Lord is 
spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, 
there is liberty. And in the gospel referred to 
above I find this written : " And it came to 

iThis is quoted literally from the Hebrew text, that of the 
Seventy (LXX) has, "out of Egypt have I called my chil- 
dren," tA riKva. This made the saying of Hosca (XL 2) no 
prophecy of our Lord ; consequently he who inserted this 
reference can have known only the Hebrew text, and not the 
Greek version. 

2 Nazarene = netser, not nasir. 


pass, as the Lord ascended from the water, the 
whole fountain of the Holy Spirit descended 
upon Him and rested upon Him, and said to 
Him, * My son^ in all the prophets I expected 
thee that Thou mightest come and that I might 
rest upon thee. Thou art my rest, thou art 
my firstborn Son, who reignest in eternity.' '' 
Hieronymus in Jcs. XI, 2. 
(Matt. IV, I, 8). If any should lend credence 
to the Gospel according to the Hebrews, where 
the Saviour Himself says : " My mother, the 
Holy Spirit, took me just now by one of my 
hairs and carried me off to the great Mount 
Tabor," he will have difficulty of explaining 
how the Holy Spirit can be the mother of 

Origen, Comment on John II, 12; in Homil. 
on Jcrcm, XV, 4 he says: if any one receives 
the word '' My mother, the Holy Spirit, took 
me just now and carried me off to the great 
Mount Tabor," he could see his mother; see 
also Hieronymus in Isa. XI, 9 sq. ; in Esek. 
XVI, 13; in Mic. VII, 7. In his commentary 
on Isa. XI, 9, Jerome remarks that no one 
should be offended, because in Hebrew the 
word " Spirit " (1. e., * ruach ') is of feminine 
gender, and in our language (i. e., Latin), 
and in the Greek neuter; for in the Godhead 
there is no gender. — 

Whether the ** great mount " refers to the 
Mount of Temptation or Transfiguration is 


not easy to determine. Ancient tradition 
claims Tabor for both. As the Transfigura- 
tion was witnessed by some of the disciples, it 
was not necessary to tell this, and we therefore 
infer that the mount referred here is probably 
that of the Temptation. 

6. (Matt. IV, 5). The Jewish gospel has not " in- 

to the Holy City," but " to Jerusalem." 

Cod. ev. 566; comp. Tischendorf, No- 
titia Cod. Sinait. p. 58. 

7. ( Matt. VI, 11) In the gospel of the Hebrews 

for the " supersubstantial bread " I found 
" Mahar " which signifies " to-morrow's," so 
that the meaning would be : " give us this day 
the bread for the morrow." 

Hieronymus in Matt, VI, 11, see also in 

Ps. CXXXV. (Anecdota Maredsolana 

III, 2, 202.) 
Baring-Gould (Lost and Hostile Gospels, p. 
138) remarks: "It is curious that the Prot- 
estant Reformers, shrinking from translating 
the word ariovVtov according to its apparently 
legitimate rendering, lest they should give 
color to the Catholic idea of the daily bread 
of the Christian soul being the Eucharist, 
should have adopted a rendering more in ac- 
cordance with an apocryphal idea than with a 
canonical gospel." 

8. (Matt. XII, 9-13). In the gospel which the 

Nazarenes and Ebionites use, and which I re- 
cently translated from the Hebrew into Greek 


(by most it is designated as the original (au- 
thenticum) Matthew), we read that the man 
with the withered hand, was a mason, who 
asked for help with these words : " I was a 
mason, working for my bread with my hands. 
I pray Thee, Jesus, restore me to soundness, 
that I eat not my bread in disgrace/' 
Hieronymus in Matt. XII, 13. 

9. (Matt. XVI, 17). For Barjona the Jewish 

gospel reads " Son of John." 

Cod. evang. 566 (Petrop, Muralt. 54 
saec. IX ; Tischendorf , Notitia cod, Sinait. 

p. 58.) 

10. (Matt. XVIII, 21, 22). In the same volume 

(i. e., in the gospel of the Hebrews) we read: 
"If thy brother has sinned in word against 
thee, and has made satisfaction, forgive him 
unto seven times a day. Simon, His disciple, 
said unto Him : " Until seven times ? " The 
Lord answered saying, " Verily I say unto 
thee, until seventy times seven! For even in 
the prophets the word of sin is found after 
they have been anointed with the holy Spirit." 
Hieronymus, contra Pelagium III, 2; 
comp. Cod. evang. 566 (Tischendorf, 1. c.) 
where we also read: The Jewish (gos- 
pel) has yet " seventy times seven." For 
even in the prophets the word of sin was 
found after they have been anointed with 
the holy Spirit. 

11. (Matt. XIX, 16 sq.). It is written in a cer- 


tain gospel, which h styled, " according to the 
Hebrews," if any one pleases to receive it, 
not as an authority, but as an illustration of 
the subject before us: Another rich man 
said to Him : " Master, what good thing shall 
I do to live?" He said to him: "O man, 
fulfil the law and the prophets." He replied: 
"I have fulfilled." He said to him: "Go, 
sell all that thou possesseth, and distribute to 
the poor, and come, follow me." But the rich 
man began to scratch his head, and it did not 
please him. And the Lord said to him: 
" How sayest thou, I have fulfilled the law and 
the prophets, since it is written in the law: 
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself; 
and lo! many of thy brethren, sons of Abra- 
ham, are clothed in filth, dying of hunger, and 
thy house is full of many goods, and nothing 
at all goes out of it to them." And return- 
ing to Simon, His disciple, who was sitting 
by Him, he said : " Simon, son of Jonas, it 
is easier for a camel to enter the eye of a 
needle than for a rich man (to enter) into 
the kingdom of heaven." 

Origen in Matt. XV, 14 (according to 

the Latin translation, the Greek text has 

been lost). 
Baring-Gould (p. 141) makes the follow- 
ing remark : " The comparison of these two 
accounts (viz. : that of the Gospel of the He- 
brews and of St. Matthew XIX, 16-24) is 


not favorable to that in the Canonical Gospel. 
It is difficult to understand how a Jew could 
have asked, as did the rich young man, what 
commandments he ought to keep in order that 
he might enter into life. The Decalogue was 
known by heart by every Jew. Moreover, the 
narrative in the lost gospel is more connected 
than in the Canonical Gospel. The reproach 
made by- our Lord is admirably calculated to 
bring home to the rich man's conscience the 
truth, that, though professing to observe the 
letter of the law, he was far from practising 
its spirit; and this leads us quite naturally to 
the declaration of the difficulty of a rich man 
obtaining salvation, or rather to our Lord's re- 
peating a proverb probably common at the time 
in the East. And lastly, in the proverb ad- 
dressed aside to Peter, instead of to the rich 
young man, that air of harshness which our 
Lord's words bear in the Canonical Gospel, as 
spoken to the young man in his sorrow, en- 
tirely disappears. The proverb is uttered, not 
in stern rebuke, but as the expression of sad 
disappointment when the rich man has re- 

12. (Matt. XXI, 9). Matthew who wrote a gos- 
pel in Hebrew offer " Osanna Barrama," i. e., 
Hosanna in the highest. 

Hieronymus, Epist, XX, 5 ad Damasum. 

13. (Matt. XXIII, 35). In the Gospel which the 


Nazarenes use we find it written for Son of 
Barachias " Son of Jehoiada." 

Hieronymus in Matt, XXIII, 35; in a 

scholion in Matthaei, Evang, Matth. 

Riga 1788, p. 376, we read: "He calls 

Zacharias the son of Jodae, for he had 

two names. 
Baring-Gould (1. c, p. 138) remarks: 
" Now the Zacharias to whom our Lord re- 
ferred was Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, and 
not of Barachias, who was stoned * in the 
court of the house of the Lord ' by order of 
Joash (2 Chron. XXIV, 20). Zacharias, son 
of Barachias, was not killed till long after the 
death of our Lord. He was massacred by the 
zealots inside the Temple, shortly before 
the siege, i. e., about A. D. 69. Either, then, 
the Greek Gospel of St. Matthew was not 
written till after the siege of Jerusalem, and 
so this anachronism passed into it, or the error 
is due to a copyist, who, having heard of the 
murder of Zacharias son of Barachias, but 
who knew nothing of the Zacharias mentioned 
in Chronicles, corrected the Jehoiada of the 
original into Barachias, thinking that thereby 
he was rectifying a mistake." 

Zahn thinks that the scholion mentioned 
above has solved the difficulty by giving both 
names Barachias and Jodae (Jodane) to the 
father of Zechariah, who was killed. 


14. (Matt. XXV, 14 sqq.). Since the gospel 
which has come down to us in Hebrew lan- 
guage pronounces not the threat against him 
who hid the money, but who spent it in riot- 
ous living — (the master) had three servants; 
one spent the substance of the master with 
harlots and with female flutists; the second 
multiplied it ; the third hid the talent ; then the 
one received an addition, the second was 
blamed, and the third was cast into prison. 
I imagine that according to Matthew the 
threat which was spoken after the word ad- 
dressed to the idle one, does not concern him, 
but by way of epanalepsis the one mentioned 
before, who had eaten and drunk with the 

Eusebius, Theophania (Mai, "Nova 
Patrum bibliotheca '' IV, i (1847), p. 


15. (Matt. XXVI, 74). The Hebrew: "and he 

denied and swore and cursed.' ' 

Cod. evang. 566 (Tischendorf 1. c). 

16. (Matt. XXVII, 16 sq.). In the so-called gos- 
pel of the Hebrews, Barrabas is interpreted by 
" son of their teacher,'' who was condemned 
for sedition and murder. 

Hieronymus in Matt, XXVII, 16; Ori- 
gen, scholion in Gallandi XIV app., p. 81 
reads.: It seems that the name of the rol> 
ber was a patronymic, since it is trans- 
lated " son of the teacher." The com- 


posed name Barraban means " son of our 

17. (Matt. XXVII, 51). In the Gospel often 
mentioned we read ** that the very great lintel 
of the Temple broke and fell into pieces." 

Hieronymus in Matt, XXVII, 51; 
comp. also his epistle, to Hedibia (epist. 
• CXX, 8) ; Baring-Gould (1. c, p. 1*52) 
says : " that this tradition may be true is 
not unlikely. The rocks were rent, and 
the earth quaked, and it is probable 
enough that the Temple was so shaken 
that the great lintel stone fell." 

18. (Matt. XXVII, 62 sqq.; comp. i Cor. XV, 7). 
The Gospel also entitled " according to the 
Hebrews " which I lately translated into 
Greek and Latin, and which Origen often 
quotes, contains the following narrative after 
the Resurrection : " Now the Lord when He 
had given the cloth to the servant of the priest, 
went to James and appeared to him." For 
James had taken an oath that he would not 
eat bread from that hour on which he had 
drunk the cup of the Lord, till he saw Him 
risen from the dead. Again a little afterward 
the Lord says : " Bring a table and bread," 
and forthwith it is added : " He took bread 
and blessed and brake and gave to James the 
Just and said to him : * My brother, eat thy 
bread, for the Son of Man is risen from them 
that sleep.' " 


Hieronymus, De viris inlastribiis 2. 

" This touching incident," says Baring- 
Gould (1. c, p. 149), " is quite in keeping with 
what we know about St. James, the Lord's 
brother. James the Just, according to Hege- 
sippus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. II, 23) 
* njeither drank wine nor fermented liquors 
and abstained from animal food ' ; and though 
the account of Hegesippus is manifestly fabu- 
lous in some of its details, still there is no rea- 
son to doubt that James belonged to the ascetic 
school among the Jews. . . . The oath to 
abstain from food till a certain event was ac- 
complished was not unusual (Acts XXIII, 14). 
. . . The story of this appearance found 
its way into the writings of St. Gregory of 
Tours (Hist. EccL Francorum I, 21), who no 
doubt drew it from St. Jerome; and themre it 
passed into the * Legenda Aurea ' of Jacques 
de Voragine." 
19. (Matt. XXVII, 62 sqq., XXVIII, 17). For 
I know and believe that after His resurrection 
He lived in the flesh. For when the Lord 
came to Peter and to the Apostles, He said to 
them : " Lay hold, handle Me, and see that 
I am not an incorporeal spirit." And imme- 
diately they touched Him, and believed, being 
both convinced by His flesh and spirit. 
Ignatius ad Smyrn, III, i, 2. 

Ignatius, who cites these words, does not say 
whence he drew them; but Ilieronymus {De 


viris inlustribus 16) informs us that they were 
taken from the Gospel of the Hebrews. In 
his commentary on Isaiah XVIII (preface), 
Jerome informs us that according to the gos- 
pel which the Nazarenes call that of the He- 
brews, the apostles believed Jesus to be " in- 
corporate daemonium." Eusebius (Hist. Ec- 
cles. III, 36, 11) remarks that he knows not 
whence the words of Ignatius are taken. Ori- 
gen (De princ. I prooem. 8) speaks of a pas- 
sage in that book which is called the " Doc- 
trine of Peter," where the Saviour said to His 
disciples : " I am not an incorporeal demon 
(daemonium incorporeum)" and adds that 
anyone who quotes this is to be replied first 
that this writing belongs not to those received 
by the Church; then it is to be shown that it 
was written neither by Peter, nor by any one 
who was inspired by the Spirit of God. 

20. (John VII, 53, VIII, 11). He (Papias) gives 
a history of a woman who had been accused of 
many sins before the Lord, which is also con- 
tained in the gospel of the Hebrews. 

Eusebius, Hist, Eccles, III, 39, 17. 

21. (Matt. V, 21 sqq? XVIII, 6 sqq., 31?). In 
the gospel of the Hebrews which the Nazarenes 
are in the habit to read it belongs to the great- 
est sins when " one afflicts the spirit of his 

TT= ^^^ ;^ ^ ,, XVIIL 7. 

a* rew gospel, where 


the Lord says to His disciples : " Be never 
glad unless ye are in charity with your 

Hieronymus in Ephes, V, 4. 

23. The cause therefore of the divisions of souls 
that come to pass in houses (Christ) Himself 
taught as we have found in a place in the Gos- 
pel existing among the Jews in the Hebrew 
language, in which it is said : " I will choose 
for myself the best which my Father in heaven 
hath given me." 

Eusebius, Thcophania IV, 12. 

24. As it is also written in the gospel of the He- 

brews " He who wonders shall reign, and he 

that reigns shall rest." 

Clem. Alex. Stromata II, 9, 45. In an- 
other passage Stromata V, 14, 96 Cle- 
ment says: "With these words (Plato, 
Timcctis, p. 90) agrees the sentence: * He 
that seeks will not rest till he finds, and 
when he finds, he will wonder, and won- 
dering he shall reign, and reigning he 
shall rest.' " 


7. Patristic Notices, 

What we know of the Ebionites is from 
Epiphanius. He tells us : And they only 
accept the gospel of Matthew. This alone 


they use, as do also the followers of Cerinthus 
and Merinthus. They call it the gospel of the 
Hebrews. To tell the truth, Matthew wrote 
only in Hebrew and in Hebrew letters the nar- 
rative and preaching of the Gospel in the New 
Testament. Others again have asserted that 
the gospel of John is kept in a Hebrew trans- 
lation in the treasuries of the Jews — namely 
at Tiberias — and that it is hidden there as 
some converts from Judaism have told us ac- 
curately. Even the book of the Acts of the 
Apostles translated from the Greek into the 
Hebrew, is said to be kept there in the treas- 
uries, so that the Jews, who told us this and 
read it came in this way to the belief on Christ. 
Epiphanius, Hceres, XXX, 3. 

In another passage Epiphanius also states 
(XXX, 6) : And when among these (i. e., 
among the books hidden at Tiberias), as has 
been said, he had read the Gospel of John 
translated from the Greek into Hebrew, he 
also found the Acts of the Apostles. And not 
this alone, but also the gospel of Matthew, 
which was originally Hebrew. . . . 

And (XXX, 13) : in the Gospel of Matthew 
used by them — not in the perfect, but in a 
mutilated and castrated form — they call it 
gospel of the Hebrews — it is recorded : " and 
there was a man," etc. (see beldw under 4). 



tering into him. And a voice was heard from 
heaven : * Thou art my beloved Son, and in 
thee am I well pleased/ And again : ' This 
day have I begotten thee/ And suddenly 
shone a great light in that place. And John 
seeing him, said, Who art thou. Lord? 
Then a voice was heard from heaven : * This 
is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.' 
Thereat John fell at his feet and said: I 
pray thee, Lord, baptize me. But he would 
not, saying, * Suffer it, for so it behoveth that 
all should be accomplished.' " 

Epiphaiiius, H ceres, XXX, 13 (follow- 
ing I a). 

iComp. Luke III, 23). And there was a man 
named Jesus, and he was about thirty years 
old ; he has chosen us. 

Epiphanius, ihid, 

[•(Matt. IV, 12; IX, 9 sq.). And he came into 
Capernaum and entered into. the house of Si- 
mon, surnamed Peter, and He opened His 
mouth and said, "As I walked by the sea of 
Tiberias, I chose John and James, the sons 
of Zebedee, and Simon and Andrew and Thad- 
dieus and Simon Zelotes, and Judas Iscariot; 
thee also, Matthew, when thou wast sitting at 
the receipt of custom, did I call and thou didst 
follow me. According to my intention ye 
shall be twelve apostles for a testimony unto 

Epiphanius, ibid. 


6. (Matt XII, 47 sq.). They also deny that He 

is a man, basing their assertion on the word 
which He said when He was told : " Behold 
thy mother and thy brethren stand without." 
" Who is my mother and who are my breth- 
ren?" "And He stretched forth His hand 
toward His disciples and said: * These are 
my brethren and my mother and sisters, which 
do the will ^ of my Father/ " 

Epiphanius, Hceres. XXX, 14. 

7. They say that He is not begotten by God the 

Father, but created like one of the archangels, 
being greater than they. He rules over the 
angels and the beings created by God and He 
came and declared as the gospel used by them 
records : " I am come to abolish the sacrifices : 
if ye cease not from sacrificing, the wrath (of 
God) will not cease from weighing upon you." 
Epijihan., Hcures. XXX, 16. 

8. (Matt. XXVI, 17 sq.). Those who rejected the 

meat have inconsiderately fallen into the error 
and said : " I have no desire to eat the flesh 
of this Paschal Lamb with you." (They leave 
the true order of words and distort the word 
which is clear to all from the connection of 
the words and make the disciples say: 
" Where wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee 
to eat the Passover? " To which He replied: 
" I have no desire to eat the flesh of this 
Paschal Lamb with you.") 

Eriphan., Hcrrcs, XXX, 22. 
1 Lit. the wills. 



I, Patristic Notices, 

a. Their (the Sabellians') entire error has its cause 

and strength in some Apocrypha,- especially in 
the so-called Gospel of the Egyptians to which 
some have ascribed this name. For in it many 
such things are transmitted as esoteric doc- 
trine of the Lord, as if He had taught His 
disciples that the Father, the Son and the Holy 
Spirit are one and the same. 

Epiphanius, Hccres, LXII, 2. 

b. (The Naassenes) say that the soul is something 

which is hard to find and hard to know. For 
it remains not in one fashion and in one form, 
nor also in one affection so that it could be 
called after one pattern or perceived in its na- 
ture. These manifold strange notions they 
find in the so-called gospel of the Egyptians. 
Hippolytus, Philosophumena V, 7. 

2, Fragments, 
I. a. Wherefore Salome evidently said when the 
Logos spoke of the end : " How long shall 
men die?" . . . Wherefore the Lord 
very aptly answered : " As long as ye women 
give birth." 

Clem. Alexand., Stromata III, 9, 64; 
see also III, 6, 45; and Clem. Alex., Ex- 
cerpta ex Theodoto 67. 
b. Why do they (the heretics, whcf reject mar- 


riage) not also quote the following words 
which were spoken to Salome, they, who sooner 
follow everything else than the true evangel- 
ical canon ? For when she said : " Then I 
have done well that I have not given birth," 
imagining that it is not permitted to bear chil- 
dren, the Lord answered : " Eat of every 
herb, but the bitter one eat not/' 

Clem. Alex., Stromata III, 9, 66. 
Baring-Gould (1. c, p. 22y)y quoting these 
two fragments, remarks : " Cassian appealed 
to this text also in proof that marriage was 
forbidden. But Clement of Alexandria re- 
fused to understand it in this sense. He is 
perhaps right when he argues that the first an- 
swer of our Lord means, that as long as there 
are men born, so long men will die. But the 
meaning of the next answer entirely escapes 
him. When our Lord says, " Eat of every herb 
save that which is bitterness," he means, 
says Clement, that marriage and continence 
are left to our choice, and that there is no com- 
mand one way or the other; man may eat of 
every tree, the tree of celibacy, or the tree of 
marriage, only he must abstain from the tree 
of evil. But this is not what was meant. 
Under a figurative expression, the writer of 
this passage conveyed a warning against mar- 
riage. Death is the fruit of birth, birth is the 
fruit of marriage. Abstain from eating of the 
tree of marriage, and death will be destroyed." 


Baring-Gould continues by saying : " That 
this is the real meaning of this remarkable 
saying is proved conclusively by another ex- 
tract from the Gospel of the Egyptians, also 
made by Clement of Alexandria." ^ 
5. When Salome asked when it shall be made 
known what she asked, the Lord said : " When 
you tread under foot the covering of shame, 
and when out of two is made one, and the male 
with the female, neither male nor female." 
And this word we have not in the four gospels 
transmitted to us, but only in the Gospel of the 

Cassian in Clem. Alexand., Stromata 
III, 13, 92. 
Almost the same saying is found in the 2. 
Epistle of Clement, XII, 2, 4, 5, where we 
read: For the Lord Himself being asked by 
one when His Kingdom would come, replied, 
" When two shall be one, that which is with- 
out as that which is within, and the male with 
the female, neither male nor female." The 
explanation of this singular passage by Cle- 
ment of Rome is : " Now, two are one when 
we speak the truth one to another, and there 
is unfeignedly one soul in two bodies. And 
* that which is without as that which is with- 
in ' meaneth this : He calls the soul ' that 
which is within,' and the body * that which is 
without.' As, then, thy body is visible to 

1 See under 3. 


sight, so also let thy soul be manifest by good 
works. And * the male with the female, 
neither male nor female,' this He saith, that 
brother seeing sister may have no thought 
concerning her as female, and that she have 
no thought concerning him as male. ' If ye 
do these things,' saith He, ' the Kingdom of 
my Father shall come.' " 

3. Those who are hostile to the word of God on 
account of the notorious continence also quote 
these words to Salome already referred to. 
They are found in the Gospel of the Egyptians. 
They say: "The Saviour Himself said: 
* I came to destroy the works of woman ' ; * of 
the woman ' namely of lust ; * the works,' gen- 

' eration and death." 

Clem. Alex., Stromata III, 9, 63. 


There is extant in Greek, Latin and Syriac 
a gospel by Thomas the " Israelitish philoso- 
pher," which comprises in nineteen chapters 
the time from the fifth to the twelfth year of 
Jesus. Whether this has any connection with 
the Gospel of Thomas, of which a few frag- 
ments are only extant, we know not. Ehrhard 
thinks it probable that the gospel of infancy 
is based in some way upon the gospel of 
Thomas. The latter is mentioned by Nice- 
phorus as having contained 1300 stichoi. 


What we know of this gospel we learn from 
the following: 

1. We have, however, necessarily subjoined here a 

catalog of these also, in order to distinguish 
those that are true, genuine and well authenti- 
cated writings, from those others which are 
not only not embodied in the canon, but like- 
wise disputed, notwithstanding that they are 
recognized by most ecclesiastical writers. 
Thus we may have it in our power to know 
both these books, and those that are adduced 
by the heretics under the name of the Apostles, 
such, viz. : as compose the gospels of " Peter " 
and " Thomas " and " Matthias '* and others 
beside them, or such as contain the Acts of 
the Apostles, by Andrew and John, and others, 
of which no one of those writers in the ec- 
clesiastical succession has condescended to 
make any mention in his works. 

Eusebius, Hist. Ecclcs. Ill, 25, 6. 

2. The New Testament has only four gospels; the 

others are pseud-epigrapha and hurtful. The 
Manichseans wrote also a " gospel accord- 
ing to Thomas," which having the sweet savor 
of an evangelical name, corrupts the souls of 
simple people. 

Cyrill. Hieros., Catech. IV, 36. 

3. Let no one read the " gospel of Thomas." For 

it is not by one of the apostles, but by one of 
the evil disciples of Manes. 

Cyrill. Hieros. Catech., VI, 31. 


2. Fragments. 

1. Its (of truth) beginning is to admire the deeds, 

as Plato says in the " Theaetetus " and Mat- 
thias recommends in the Traditions : " Won- 
der at what is before you/' laying this down 
as first step of further knowledge. 
Clem. Alex., Stromata II, 9, 45. 

2. They (the Gnostics) assert that Matthias also 

taught thus that " the flesh must be contended 
with, and evil entreated, and its unbridled lust 
must in no wise be yielded to, but the soul 
must be made to grow through faith and 

Clem. Alex., Stromata III, 4, 26; 
Nicephorus Callisti, Hist, Eccles. Ill, 15. 

3. They say that in the Traditions the apostle 

Matthias said among other things: "If the 
neighbor of an elect man sin, the elect man 
has sinned; for had he conducted himself as 
the word prescribes, his neighbor also would 
have been filled with such reverence for the 
life he led as not to sin." ^ 

Clem. Alex., Stromata VII, 13, 82. 

4. (Luke XIX, 2-10). Zacchaeus, according to 

others, Matthias, chief of the tax collectors, 
when he heard how the Lord wished to come 

1 Baring-Gould (1. c. p. 133) remarks: **This was exag- 
gerated in the doctrine of the Albigenses in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. The * Perfects/ the ministers of the 
sect, * reconciled ' the converted. But if one of the Perfect 
sinned («. e. ate meat or married), all whom he had recon- 
ciled fell with him from grace, even those who were dead 
and in heaven." 


to him, said : " Behold, Lord, the half of my 
goods, I give to the poor; and if I have taken 
from any man by false accusation, I restore 
him fourfold." Of him said the Lord : " The 
Son of Man came to-day and found that which 
was lost." 

Clem. Alex., Stromata IV, 6, 35. 


According to Harnack this gospel, which 
Epiphanius found among a Gnostic party in 
Egypt, belongs to the second, or to the first 
half of the third century. Zahn thinks that it 
originated already in the first decades of the 
second century in primitive Gnostic circles of 
Egypt. The author is probably the Apostle 
Philip (John I, 45 sq.; VI, 5, 7; XII, 21 sq.; 
XIV, 8 sq.) and not the evangelist of that 
name (Acts VI, 5 ; VIII, 5 sq. ; XXI, 8 sq.). 

The only fragment which has been pre- 
served by Epiphanius runs this: — " They (the 
Gnostics) produce a gospel fathered upon 
Philip, the holy disciple, in which it is said: 
The Lord revealed to me what the soul ought 
to say when she mounts to heaven, and what 
answer she should give to each of the higher 
powers : ' I have known myself, and gathered 
myself together, and begotten no children for 
the Archon of this world, but have torn up his 
roots, and gathered the scattered members. 


and I know who thou art. For I am de- 
scended from the upper world.' By speaking 
in this manner she is dismissed. But if she is 
found to have begotten a son, she is kept be- 
low, until she is able to take up her children 
and to draw them to herself." 

Epiphanius, H ceres. XXVI, *I3. 
" It is not altogether easy,'' says Baring- 
Gould (1. c, p. 294), "to catch the meaning 
of this singular passage, but it apparently has 
its signification. The soul trammelled with the 
chains of matter, created by the Archon, the 
Creator of the world, has to emancipate itself 
from all material concerns. Each thought, 
interest, passion, excited by any thing in the 
world, is a child born by the soul of Archon, 
to which the soul has contributed animation, 
the world, form. The great work of life is 
the disengagement of the soul from all concern 
in the affairs of the world, in the requirements 
of the body. When the soul has reached the 
most exalted perfection, it is cold, passionless, 
indifferent; then it comes before the Supreme 
God, passing through the spheres guarded by 
attendant aeons or angels, and to each it pro- 
tests its disengagement. But should any 
thought or care for mundane matters be found 
lurking in the recesses of the soul, it has to 
descend again, and remain in exile till it has 
reabsorbed all the life it gave, the interest it 


felt, in such concerns, and then again make it 
easy to reach God." 


Baring-Gould (1. c, p. 286) says: "The 
immoral tendency of Valentinianism broke out 
in coarse, flagrant licentiousness as soon as 
the doctrines of the sect had soaked down out 
of the stratum of educated men to the ranks 
of the undisciplined and vulgar. Valentinian- 
ism assumed two forms, broke into two sects, 
— the Marcosians and the Ophites. . . . 
The Ophites possessed a gospel, called the 
* Gospel of Eve.' It contained, no doubt, an 
account of the Fall from their peculiar point 
of view." Epiphanius has preserved two pas- 
sages from it. 
Others are not ashamed to speak of a Gospel of 
Eve. Upon her name they father a seed as 
if they had found the meat of knowledge in 
consequence of a revelation, the serpent hav- 
ing talked with her. And as in the fickle mind 
of one that is drunk or confused the words are 
not the same, being partly foolish, partly whin- 
ing, thus it altogether happened to the secret 
evil seed of those impostors. And they pro- 
ceed from the foolish visions and testimonies 
which are declared in that gospel. They as- 
sert the following : " I stood on a high hill 


and saw a tall man, and another one who was 
mutilated and I heard something like the voice 
of the thunder, and I drew near to hearken, 
and he spoke to me saying : * I am thou, and 
thou art I, and where thou art there am I also 
and in all things am I sown. And from when- 
soever thou gatherest me, in gathering me 
thou gatherest thyself.' "... 

Epiphanius, Hcures. XXVI, 2 sq. 
2. They therefore read also in apocryphal books: 
" I saw a tree, which bore twelve fruits dur- 
ing the year and he said to me : ' This is the 
tree of life,' which they refer to the female 

Epiphanius, 1. c, 5. 
With regard to the first fragment Baring- 
Gould remarks : " The meaning of this pas- 
sage is not doubtful. It expresses the doc- 
trine of absolute identity between Christ and 
the believer, the radiation of divine ' virtue 
through all souls, destroying their individual- 
ity, that all may be absorbed into Christ. In- 
dividualities emerge out of God, and through 
Christ are drawn back into God." 


The Fayum-Fragment is perhaps the oldest 
fragment of a non-canonical gospel. Bickell 
published a facsimile which answers to Mark 
XIV, 26-30 (but without V, 28), but it may 


also be a mere abbreviation of the text of 
Mark. It may perhaps belong to some homily 
or treatise. Nosgen and Zahn are in favor of 
the latter. Harnack suggested that the frag- 
ment may belong to the gospel of the He- 
brews or Egyptians, a suggestion made before 
him already by Chiapelli. 

The fragment as it stands reads thus: 
. . . Before I must depart, you all 
like . . . will be offended in this 
night according to the Scripture : " I will 
smite the shepherd and the sheep shall 
be scattered." But Peter said: "And 
though all (do it), yet not I." But the 
Lord said : " The cock will crow twice, 
and thou shalt be the first to betray me 
thrice. . . ." 


Under this heading we bring the two gos- 
pel fragments ; the first was published by Gren- 
fell and Hunt in 1904; the second in 1908; 
the former was discovered in 1903; the latter 
in December 1905. Besides these gospel- 
fragments we also bring the Oxyrhynchus 
Sayings or Logia, both those found in 1897 
and 1903. 



1. (Take no thought) from morning until even 

nor from evening until morning, either for 
your food what ye shall eat or for your rai- 
ment what ye shall put on. Ye are far better 
than the lilies which grow but spin not. Hav- 
ing one garment, what do ye (lack?). . . . 
Who could add to your stature? He Him- 
self will give you your garment. His dis- 
ciples say unto Him : " When wilt thou be 
manifest to us, and when shall we see thee? " 
He saith : " When ye shall be stripped and 
not be ashamed. ..."... He said: 
" The key of knowledge ye hid ; ye entered 
not in yourselves and to them that were enter- 
ing in ye opened not." ^ 

2. . . . before he does wrong makes all man- 

ner of subtle excuse. But give heed lest ye 
also suffer the same things as they; for the 
evildoers among men receive their reward not 
among the living only, but also await punish- 
ment and much torment. 

And He took them and brought them into 
the very place of purification, and was walk- 
ing in the temple. 

And a certain Pharisee, a chief priest, whose 
name was Levi ( ?), met them and said to the 

iThe editors state that the gospel from which this frag- 
ment comes is likely to have been composed in Egypt before 
A. D. 150, and to have stood in intimate relation to th^ 
gospel of the Egyptians, 


Saviour : " Who gave thee leave to walk in 
this place of purification and to see these holy 
vessels, when thou hast not washed nor yet 
have thy disciples bathed their feet? But de- 
filed thou hast walked in this temple, which is 
a pure place, wherein no other man walks ex- 
cept he has washed himself and changed his 
garments, neither does he venture to see these 
holy vessels." And the Saviour straightway 
stood still with his disciples and answered him : 
" Art thou then, being here in the temple, 
clean ? " He saith unto him : " I am clean ; 
for I washed in the pool of David, and having 
descended by one staircase I ascended by an- 
other, and I put on white and clean garments, 
and then I came and looked upon these holy 

The Saviour answered and said unto him: 
" Woe ye blind, who see not. Thou hast 
washed in these running waters wherein dogs 
and swine have been cast night and day, and 
hast cleansed and wiped the outside skin which 
also the harlots and flute-girls anoint and wash 
and wipe and beautify for the lust of men; 
but within they are full of scorpions and all 
wickedness. But I and my disciples, who thou 
sayest have not bathed, have been dipped in 
the waters of eternal life which come from 
. . , But wot unto thee. . . . 



1. . . . And then thou shalt see clearly to cast 

out the mote that is in thy brother's eye. 

2. Jesus says "Except ye fast (to or from) the 

world, ye shall in no wise find the Kingdom 
of God, and except ye sabbatize the Sabbath, 
ye shall not see the Father." 

The phrase to " fast from the world " is 
also found in Clem. Alex., Stromata III, 15, 99. 
" To sabbatize the Sabbath " is to keep the 
true Sabbath, is to cease from sin. Of many 
possible patristic illustrations of spiritual Sab- 
bath-keeping, cf. Justin Martyr, Dial, c. 
Trypho 12: "The new Law wishes you to 
sabbatize continually, and ye while ye do no 
work throughout one day imagine that ye act 
piously. This is because ye do not understand 
why the command was given you. Also if ye 
have eaten unleavened bread ye say that ye 
have fulfilled the law. Not in these things 
is the Lord our God pleased. If there is any 
one among you forsworn or a thief, let him 
cease: if any adulterer, let him repent, and 
then he has sabbatized the true and joyous 
Sabbath of God." (Jackson, p. 63.) 
3. Jesus saith : " I stood in the midst of the world, 
and in the flesh was I seen of them, and I 
found all men drunken, and none found I 
athirst among them. And my soul grieveth 


over the sons of men, because they are blind 
at heart and see not their poverty." * 

4. Jesus saith : " Wherever there are two, they 

are not without God's presence; and where 
there is one only, I say, I am with him. Raise 
up the stone, and there thou shalt find me; 
cleave the tree and I am there/' 

The first part of this logion, because very 
defective in the manuscript, has given rise to 
numerous conjectures. We have followed the 
brilliant conjecture of Blass. As parallel pas- 
sage may be adduced the saying (see 69) con- 
tained in Ephraem Syr., Evang, Concord, Ex- 

The latter half of this saying offers no 
difficulty of reading, but is the most contested 
point of interpretation. The view which has 
been most widely accepted, is that which sees 
in the words an assertion of Christ's presence 
in nature; so that the sequence of thought will 
be, " In all forms of human life I am present; 
yea, and under inanimate creation you will 
find me." 

5. Jesus says: "A prophet is not acceptable in 

his own country, neither does a physician work 
cures upon them that know him." 

6. Jesus says : " A city built on the top of a high 

^ So Klostermann and Preuschen ; Taylor suggests : their 
wretchedness and their poverty; Cross, Lock and Sanday: 
see not, poor and know not their poverty. 


hill and established can neither fall nor be 

7. Jesus says: "Thou hearest with one ear (but 

the other thou hast closed)/' 

The words within brackets are sug- 
gested by Swete.* 

8. ( I ) These are the true sayings which Jesus who 

liveth and was dead spake to Judas Thomas. 
And the Lord said to him : " Whosoever 
shall hearken to these sayings, he shall in no- 
wise taste of death.*' 

That Judas has also been called 
Thomas, we know from the Abgar Leg- 
end, from the Acts of Thomas, and 
Eusebius, Hist, Eccles, I, 13, 11. 

9. (2) Jesus saith: "Let not him who seeks the 

Father cease until he find him; and having 
found him, let him be amazed; and being 
amazed he shall reign, and reigning he shall 

The substance of this saying is also 
found in Clem. Alexand., Stroma fa (see 
above Gospel of the Hebrews XXIV). 
In the Acta Thomce (ed. Bonnet, p. 243) 
we read : " And the apostle said : * The 
treasury of the holy King is flung open, 
and they who worthily partake of the 
good things there rest, and resting they 
shall reign.' " 

10. (3) Jesus saith: "Who are they that draw 

1 With the following begin the sayings found in 1903. 


you (MS. us) to the Kingdom? The king- 
dom is in heaven ; but' they that are on earth 
and the birds of the heaven and every crea- 
ture that is under the earth and in Hades and 
the fishes of the sea, these are they that draw 
you to it. And the kingdom of heaven is 
within you, and whosoever shall know him- 
self shall find it; for if ye shall truly know 
yourselves, ye are the sons and daughters of 
the Father Almighty, and ye shall know your- 
selves to be in the city of God, and ye are the 

Since the reconstruction of this, the 
longest and most important of the Say- 
ings is extremely difficult, we have fol- 
lowed Swete's version.^ 

11. (4) Jesus saith: "A man will not hesitate 
to inquire boldly about the seasons, prating 
of the place of glory. But ye shall hold your 
peace; for many that are first shall be last, 
and the last first, and few shall find it/' 

12. (5) Jesus saith: "All that is not before thy 
face, and that which is hidden from thee shall 
be revealed, for there is nothing hidden which 
shall not be made manifest, or buried which 
shall not be raised." 

13. (6) His disciples question Him and say: 
"How shall we fast? And how shall we 

1 The different texts are conveniently given in Preuschen 
Antilegomena, p. 22 sq., and Klostermann Apocrypha III, 
pp. 18, 19. 


pray? And how are we to give alms? And 
of such duties what are we to observe ? " 
Jesus saith : " See that ye lose not your re- 
ward. Do nothing save the things that be- 
long to the truth, for if you do these, ye shall 
know a hidden mystery. I say unto you, 
Blessed is the man who . . ." 

This Saying, too, is broken beyond hope of 
recovery, and we have therefore also followed 
Swete, who says that " It is an answer to a 
question which happily has been fairly well 
preserved." The question seems to have 
arisen out of some instruction upon almsgiv- 
ing, prayer and fasting, similar to that which 
we find in the Sermon on the Mount, if not 
identical with it. We can imagine the circum- 
stantes. After the crowd had dispersed and 
our Lord was again alone with the Twelve, 
one or more of His disciples — Thomas, as 
the prologue suggests, or more probably Peter, 
perhaps in company with Andrew and the two 
sons of Zebedee (Mark XIII, 14) — appealed 
to him for more definite teaching on the three 
great acts of righteousness to which He had 
referred. The Pharisaic scribes had laid down 
definite rules for the discharge of these duties, 
and they looked to their Master for similar 
guidance. The strong word clcrafctv (i. e., to 
question), used in this sense only in John XX, 
12, indicates a desire to press their suit un- 
duly, to examine, cross-question, and almost 


to catechise the Master on these matters, and 
force Him to prescribe a system of nicely-bal- 
anced regulations. How, i. e., after what 
manner, were His disciples to fulfil their obli- 
gations? The motive which prompted the de- 
mand is shown by the use of iraparrfpeurOai (i. e., 

observe) ; the Twelve were still under the in- 
fluence of the Pharisaism which had been the 
religious teacher of their youth, and they not 
unnaturally sought to foist the spirit of legal- 
ism into the new teaching. — If the question 
has been rightly interpreted, the general sense 
of the answer may be conjectured. In such a 
demand the Master would discover a temper 
the very opposite of that which he had la- 
bored to produce. Those who could make it 
had failed to grasp the first lessons of the 
Kingdom of God. To use St. Paul's later 
phraseology, they looked to be justified by 
works of law, and not by a righteousness 
based upon the principle of faith. Against 
such a perversion of His teaching the Lord 
would assuredly have made a stand. But in 
what words? Along what line of thought 
would He have carried His questioners to a 
better understanding of His position? The 
keynote of His answer is struck by ttjs aX-qShjaL^, 
which survives to show that though the ques- 
tion may have arisen out of the Sermon on 
the Mount, the Lord's reply was in the terms 
of the Johannine teaching. To the bare per- 


formance of certain prescribed acts He op- 
posed the doing of the truth, which both the 
Fourth Gospel (III, 21) and the First Epistle 
of St. John (I, 6) represents, as the first con- 
dition of life in Christ. No mere acts in fast- 
ings, prayer, and almsgiving, no formal ob- 
servance of external duties could secure the 
Divine reward, which depends on the assimila- 
tion and fulfilment of the Truth itself." (Ex- 
pository Times, August, 1904, p. 493.) 


I. Patristic Notices, 

a. (The citizens of Nazareth) thought that he was 

the son of Joseph and Mary. But some say, 
basing it on a tradition in the Gospel accord- 
ing to Peter, as it is entitled, or " the book of 
James," that the brethren of Jesus were sons 
of Joseph by a former wife, whom he married 
before Mary. 

Origen, Comment, in Matt, X, 17. 

b. The Nazorites are Jews who revere Christ as a 

righteous man and use the so-called gospel 
according to Peter. 

Theodoret., Hccr, fab, comp, II, 2. 

c. As to what are called his (i. e., Peter's) Acts, 

and the Gospel according to Peter, and that 
called " the Preaching and the Revelation of 
him," we know nothing of their being handed 
down as Catholic writings. Since neither 


among the ancient nor the ecclesiastical writ- 
ers of our own day, has there been one that 
has appealed to testimony taken from them. 
Eusebius, Hist, Eccles. Ill, 3, 2. 

3. There is also another work composed by him 
(i. e., Serapion)^ on the gospel of Peter, as it 
is called, which, indeed, he wrote to refute 
the false assertions which it contains, on ac- 
count of some in the church of Rhossus, who 
by this work were led astray to perverted doc- 
trines. From which it may be well to add 
some brief extracts by which it may be seen 
what he thought of the book : — 

" We, brethren, receive Peter and the other 
Apostles as Christ Himself. But those writ- 
ings which falsely go under their name, as we 
are well acquainted with them, we reject, and 
know also, that we have not received such 
handed down to us. But when I came to you, 
I had supposed that all held the true faith ; and 

■ as I had not perused the gospel presented to 
them under the name of Peter, I said * If this 
be the only thing that creates difference among 
you, let it be read ' ; but now having under- 
stood, from what was said to me, that their 
minds were enveloped in some heresy, I will 

1 Serapion, Bishop of Antioch 190-203, on entering his see, 
learned that there was a gospel attributed to Peter read in 
the sacred services of the church of Rhossus, in Cilitia. He 
at first sanctioned its use, but after a more careful examina- 
tion Serapion regretted his precipitation in sanctioning the 
use of the Gospel, and wrote a book upon it, " in refutation 
of its false assertions." 


make haste to come to you again; therefore, 
brethren, expect me soon. But as we per- 
ceived what was the heresy of Marcion, we 
plainly saw that he ignorantly contradicted 
himself, which things you may learn from 
what has been written to you. For we have 
borrowed this gospel from others, who have 
studied it, that is, from the successors of those 
who led the way before him, whom we call 
Docetae (for most opinions have sprung from 
this sect). And in this we have discovered 
many things superadded to the sound faith of 
our Saviour; some also attached that are for- 
eign to it, and which we have also subjoined 
for your sake." 

Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. VI, 12, 2-6. 

This was all that was known of the Gospel 
of Peter till the publication of the Akhmim 
fragment which was discovered by the French 
Archaeological Mission, Cairo, in a grave 
(supposed to be a monk's) in an ancient cem- 
etry at Akhmim (Panopolis) in Upper Egypt 
in 1886. It was published in 1892 under the 
care of M. Bouriant in the "Memoirs .of the 
French Archaeological Mission at Cairo,'' Vol. 
IX., fasc. i. The same parchment which con- 
tained this fragment also contained a frag- 
ment of the Revelation of Peter and a frag- 
ment of the book of Enoch in Greek. 

The find soon produced a great literary ac- 
tivity, as can be seen from the bibliography. 


The fragment begins in the middle of the his- 
tory of the Passion, and ends in the middle 
of a sentence, with the departure of the dis- 
ciples into Galilee at the end of the Feast of 
Unleavened Bread, exactly a week after the 
Crucifixion, the ostensible author, Peter, and 
Andrew, his brother,* taking their nets and 
going to the sea. 

The dependence of x>uv Gospel upon the 
canonical gospels, especially the synoptical, is 
admitted by most scholars. It is also admitted 
that the Gospel of Peter was known to Justin. 
Harnack thinks that Clement of Alexandria, 
the Didascalia, Pseudo-Ignatius, Ephraem also 
perused the Gospel of Peter, and assigns as its 
date AC 1 10-130. It originated in Syria, but 
was also known in Egypt. 


I, I. But of the Jews none washed his hands, 
neither Herod nor any of his judges. 
And when they had refused to wash 
them, Pilate rose up. 
2. And then Herod, the King, commanded 
that the Lord be taken, saying to 
them : " What things soever I com- 
mand you to do, do unto him." 
II, 3. And there stood ' Joseph, the friend of 
Pilate and of the Lord, and knowing 
that they would crucify him, he came 
to Pilate, and asked the body of the 


4. Lord for burial. — And Pilate sent to 

5. Herod and asked his body. — And 
Herod said : " Brother Pilate, even if 
no one had asked for him, we should 
have buried him. For the Sabbath is 
drawing on ; for it is written in the law, 
that the suit set not upon one that hath 
been put to death." And he delivered 
him to the people on the day before the 
feast of the unleavened bread, their 

in, 6. And they took the Lord and pushed 
him as they ran and said : " Let us 
drag away the Son of God, since we 

7. have him in our power." And they 
clothed him with purple, and set him 
on the seat of judgment and said: 
" Judge righteously, O King of Israel." 

8. And one of them brought a crown of 
thorns and put it on the head of the 

9. Lord. — And others stood and spat in 
his eyes, and others smote his cheeks; 
others pricked him with a reed, and 
some scourged him, saying: "With 
this honor let us honor the Son of 

IV, ID. And they brought two malefactors, and 

they crucified the Lord between them. 

But he held his peace, as though hav- 

II. ing no pain. And when they had raised 

the cross they wrote the title : " This 


12. is the King of Israel." — And having 
set his garments before him they parted 
them among them, and cast lots for 

13. them. — And one of the malefactors re- 
proached them and said : " We for 
the evils that we done have suffered 
thus, but this man, who hath become 
the Saviour of men, what wrong hath 

14. he done to you?" — And they became 
angry at him and commanded that his 
legs should not be broken, that he might 
die in torment 

V, 15. And it was noon and darkness came 
over all Judaea, and they made a noise 
and were distressed, lest the sun had 
set, whilst he (Jesus) was yet alive. 
For it is written for them, that the sun 
set not on him that hath been put to 

16, 17. death. And one of them said: " Give 
him to drink gall with vinegar." And 
they mixed and gave him to drink. 
And they fulfilled all things, and ac- 
complished the sins against their own 

18. head. And many went about with 
lamps, supposing that it was night, and 
fell down. — And the Lord cried out, 

19. saying: "My power, my power, thou 
hast forsaken me," and after these 

20. words he was taken up. And in that 
hour the vail of the temple of Jerusa- 
lem was rent in twain. 


VI, 21. And then they drew out the nails from 
the hands of the Lord, and laid him 

22. upon the earth. And the whole earth 
quaked and great fear arose. — Then 
the sun shone, and it was found (that 

23. it was) the ninth hour. — And the Jews 
rejoiced and gave his body to Joseph 
that he might bury it, since he had seen 

24. what good things he had done. — And 
he took the tord and washed him, and 
rolled him in a linen cloth, and brought 
him into his own tomb, called the Gar- 
den of Joseph. 

VII, 25. Then the Jews and the elders and the 
priests, perceiving what evil they had 
done to themselves, began to beat them- 
selves and to say : " Woe for our sins ; 
the judgment has come nigh and the 

26. end of Jerusalem." — And I with my 
companions was grieved, and being 
wounded in mind we hid ourselves. 
For we were being sought for by them 
as malefactors, and as wishing to set 

2y. fire to the temple. — And upon all these 
things we fasted and sat mourning and 
weeping night and day until the Sab- 
VIII, 28. And the scribes and Pharisees and* eld- 
ers being gathered together one with 
another, when they heard that the whole 
people murmured and beat their breasts 


saying: "If by his death such great 
signs have taken place, see what right- 

29. eous man he is." — And the elders were 
afraid and came to Pilate, beseeching 

30. him and saying : — " Give us soldiers 
that we may g^ard his sepulchre for 
three days, lest his disciples come and 
steal him and the people suppose that 
he is risen from the dead and do us 

31. evil." — And Pilate gave them Petro- 
nius the centurion with soldiers to 
guard the tomb. And with them elders 
and scribes went to the sepulchre, — 

32. and with the centurion and the sol- 
diers all who were there rolled a great 
stone and set it at the door of the 

33. sepulchre, — and they affixed seven 
seals, and having pitched a tent there, 
they guarded it. 

IX, 34. And when the morning of the Sabbath 
came, a multitude came from Jerusalem 
and the region round about, to see the 

35. sealed sepulchre. — And in the night in 
which the Lord's day was drawing on, 
as the soldiers kept guard two by two, 
there was a great voice in the heaven, 

36. — and they saw the heavens opened, 
and two men descending from thence 
with great splendor and coming to the 

37. tomb. — That stone which was put at 
the door, rolled away of itself and made 


way in part, and the tomb was opened 
and the two young men entered in. — 
X, 38. And when the soldiers saw this, they 
awakened the centurion and the elders, 
for they too had remained there to keep 

39. guard. — And as they were telling what 
they had seen, they saw again three 
men come forth from the tomb, and 
two of them supporting one, and a cross 

40. following them, — and of the two the 
head reached into the heaven, but the 
head of him that was led by them over- 

41. passed the heavens, — and they heard a 
voice from the heavens, saying : " Hast 
thou preached to them that sleep" — 

42. And a response was heard from the 
cross : " Yea." — 

XI, 43. They therefore considered one with an- 
other whether to go away and shew 

44. these things to Pilate. — And while 
they yet thought thereon, the heavens 
again were seen to open, and a certain 
man to descend and enter into the sep- 

45. ulchre. — When the centurion and they 
that were with him saw these things, 

' they hastened in the night to Pilate, 
leaving the tomb which they were 
watching, and declared all things which 
they had seen, being greatly distressed 

46. and saying : " Truly He was the Son 
of God." — Pilate answered and said: 


" I am pure from the blood of the Son 
of God; you have decided thus." — 

47. Then they all drew near and besought 
him and entreated him to command the 
centurion and the soldiers to say noth- 
ing of the things which they had seen. 

48. — "For it is better," say they, "to 
commit the greatest sin before God, and 
not to fall into the hands of the people 

49. of the Jews and to be stoned." — And 
Pilate commanded the centurion and 
the soldier to say nothing. — 

XII, 50. And at dawn upon the Lord's day, 
Mary Magdalen, a disciple of the Lord, 
fearing because of the Jews, since they 
were burning with wrath, had not done 
at the Lord's sepulchre the things which 
women are wont to do for their beloved 

51. dead — she took her friends with her 
and came to the sepulchre where he 

52. was laid. — And they feared lest the 
Jews should see them, and they said: 
" Although on that day on which he 
was crucified we could not weep and 
lament, yet now let us do these things 

53. at His sepulchre. — But who sfiall roll 
away for us the stone that was laid at 
the door of the sepulchre, that we may 
enter in and sit by Him and do the 
things that are due? — For the stone 
was great, and we fear lest someone 


54. see us. And if we cannot, yet if we 
but set at the door the things which 
we bring for a memorial of Him, we 
will weep and lament, until we come 
unto our home/' 

XIII, 55. And they went and found the tomb 

opened, and coming near they looked 
in there; and they see there a certain 
young man sitting in the midst of the 
tomb, beautiful and clothed in a robe 
exceeding bright, who said to them : — 

56. " Wherefore are ye come ? Whom 
seek ye ? Him that was crucified ? He 
is risen and gone. But if ye believe 
not, look in and see the place where he 
lay, that he is not (here) ; for he is 
risen and gone thither, whence he was 

57. sent." Then the women feared and 

XIV, 58. Now it was the last day of the unleav- 

ened bread, and many were going forth, 
returning to their homes, as the feast 

59. was ended. — But the twelve disciples 
of the Lord wept and were grieved; 
and each one being grieved for that 

• which was come to pass, departed to his 

60. house. — But I Simon Peter and An- 
drew my brother took our nets and 
went to the sea ; and there was with us 
Levi the son of Alphaeus, whom the 
Lord . . . 


Harnack (Texte und Untersuchungen IX, 
2 (1893), has pointed out the following new 
traits contained in the Petrine account of the 
history of the Passion and burial : 

1. Herod was the judge who condemned Jesus, 
and to him application had to be made for the 

2. The Jews, Herod and the Judges would not 

wash their hands, and Pilate then raised the 

3. Joseph was the friend of Pilate (H). 

4. Joseph begged for the body before the cruci- 
fixion, and Pilate sent for permission from 

5. The soldiers " pushed him as they ran " and 

their speech (III). 

6. The mockery of the soldiers. 

7. Mocking speech. 

8. "As though having no pain'' (IV). 

9. " Having set his garments before him." 

ID. One of the malefactors blamed the multitude, 
and his speech. 

11. The legs of either the malefactor or Jesus were 

not broken that he might die in torment. 

12. The gall and the vinegar (V). 

13. In the darkness many went about with lamps, 
and fell down. 

14. The cry " My power, my power." 

15. The fact that when he had so cried Christ was 

taken up. 

gs Gospels 

1 6. Mention of the nails in the hands at the taking 
down from the cross (VI) 

17. The earthquake when the body touched the 


18. The joy of the Jews when the sun shone again. 

19. Joseph " had seen all the good things " that 

the Lord had done. 

20. Joseph washed the body. 

21. The cries of woe of the Jews and their leaders 

over their sins, and their expectation of the 
judgment on Jerusalem (VII). 

22. The disciples remained in concealment, full of 

grief, and fasted and wept till the Sabbath. 

23. They were searched for as malefactors and as 

anxious to burn the temple. 

24. The name of the centurion of the watch — 

Petronius (VIII). 

25. The centurion, the soldiers, and the elders 

rolled up the stone. 

26. The elders also watched at the grave. 

27. Seven seals were aflfixed to the stone. 

28. A tent pitched for the watch. 

29. The gathering of the multitude on the morning 

of the Sabbath to see the sealed sepulchre 

The narrative of the resurrection also differs 
from that of the canonical gospels, as the 
reader can see for himself. 



A. From a collection of papyri belonging to the 
fourth or fifth century and which are found 
at the Strasburg-University, A. Jacoby edited 
" Ein Neues Evangelienfragment/' in which 
he thought to see remains of the gospel of 
the Egyptians. Profs. Schmidt and Zahn as- 
sign the fragment to . the so-called gospel of 
the Ebionites. We follow the German trans- 
lation as given by Schmidt, Hennecke and 

Coptic 5 recto: [That] he be known by [his hos- 
pitality? (in strange . . .?)] and be 
praised on account of its fruit, for (that? be- 
cause?). . . . many of . . . Amen. 
Give me now thy [power], O Father, that 
[they] bear with me [the world]. Amen. 
[I have] received the diadem (sceptre) of the 
Kingdom [which is ( ?) the] diadem of Him, 
who is . . . [since one (?)] despised 
them [in their] humility, not having [known 
them]. I have become King [through Thee], 
O Father. Thou shalt subject to me [all 
things. Amen]. Through whom shall [the 
last] enemy be destroyed ? Through [Christ]. 
Amen. Through whom shall the sting of 
death be [destroyed? Through the] Only be- 
gotten. Amen. To whom belongs [the] 
dominion? [It belongs to the Son.] Amen. 


[Through whom have all things been made? 
By the First-born? . . .] 

Here 2-3 lines are wanting, 
verso: [And] when [Jesus had] completed 
[the] whole [praise? of His Father, He turned 
to us and said [to us] : The hour is come, 
when I shall be taken away from you. The 
spirit [is] willing, but the flesh [is] weak. 
[Tarry] then, and watch [with me] : But 
we, the apostles [we] wept [whilst to Him 
we] said: [Son] of God . . • [shall] 
Himself. ... He answered and said [to 
us] : Fear ye not [the] destruction [of the 
body], but rather fear ye . . . the power 
[of darkness?]. Remember all that [which 
I] have said unto you: [if] they have perse- 
cuted [me, they shall] also persecute you. 
. . . [Ye?] then, rejoice, that I [have 
overcome the world], and I have . . . 
Here 2-3 lines are wanting. 
6 recto: (that I) may manifest unto you all my 
glory and show unto you all your power and 
the mystery of your apostleship ... [in 
the] mount. . . . 

Verso : Our eyes pierced through all places, 
we saw the glory of His deity and the entire 
glory [of His] dominion. He invested [us 
with] the power of [our] apostle [ship], 

B. Prof. Carl Schmidt, the learned editor of the 
Acta Pauli in the Coptic with a German trans- 


lation (Leipzig, 1904), mentions the fact that 
the Coptic papyrus, besides the Acta Pauli, 
also contained some gospel which was added 
by the copyist in order to fill up the empty 
space. Unhappily only one leaf (p. 79-80) 
has been preserved and this in a mutilated 
form. The fragment according to Schmidt's 
translation runs thus : 

the works 

they were much surprised and took counsel 
with themselves. He said to them : " Why 
do you marvel that I raise the dead, or make 
the lame walk, or that I cleanse the lepers, or 
heal the sick, or the paralytics and the demoni- 
acs, or that I filled many with a few loaves, 
or that I walked on the sea or that I com- 
manded the winds. If you believe this and 
are convinced, ye are great. For verily I say 
unto you: If ye say unto this mountain, be 
thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea, 
without having doubted in your heart, it shall 
be done unto you." . . . One of them, 
named Simon, being convinced and he said: 
" O Lord, truly the works are great,, which 
thou doest. For we have never heard nor 
have we ever seen a man who raised the dead 
besides thee." The Lord said to him : " You 
shall ask the works, which I shall do . . . 
but the other works I shcill do at once. For 
these I do because of a momentary salvation 


(healing) in the time, when they are in these 
places, that they may believe on him who hath 
sent me." Said Simon to him : " O Lord, 
command me to speak." He said to him: 
" Speak, Peter." For from that day on he 
called them by name. He said : " Which 
work is greater than these . . . except 
the raising of the dead and the feeding of such 
a multitude?" Said the Lord to him: 
" There is something which is greater than 
this, and blessed are they who have believed 
with all their heart." But Philip lifted up his 
voice in anger, saying : " What thing is this 
which thou wouldest teach us ? " And he said 
to him : " Thou 

" There can be no doubt," says Prof. 
Schmidt, *' that this fragment belongs to an 
apocryphal gospel. Many hearers (his dis- 
ciples) are with the Lord, who wonder at the 
miraculous deeds which He did, but are still 
doubting. The Lord perceiving this, addresses 
them, why they wonder. The different mir- 
acles mentioned by the synoptists are here 
mentioned (comp. Matt. II, 5; Luke VII, 22). 
He asks them to believe and not to doubt and 
they themselves will then become great. He 
tells them what we read Matt. XXI, 21 (see 
XVII, 20) ; Mark XI, 23. 
C. A manuscript belonging to the fourth or fifth 
century, of which only one-half (32 pages) 


IS preserved, contains, according to Prof. 
Schmidt, discourses of Jesus with his disciples, 
which are put into their mouth, so that the 
whole appears as an apocryphal epistle of the 
apostles. According to Harnack the record 
originated between 150-180. More details 
can only be ascertained when the whole is pub- 

(Mary, Martha and Mary Magdalene go to 
the sepulchre to anoint the body. Seeing the 
empty sepulchre they are sad and weep. The 
Lord appears to them and says) : " Why do 
ye weep? Stop your weeping, I am He, whom 
ye seek. But let one of you go to the brethren 
and say: Come, the Master is risen from the 
dead." Martha went away and told it to us. 
We said to her : " What hast thou to do with 
us, O woman? (Comp. John II, 4.) He, 
who died, is buried and it is impossible that 
he lives." We believed her not that the Re- 
deemer had risen from the dead. So she 
went to the Lord and said to him : " None 
among them has believed me that thou livest." 
He said : " Let another of you go to them 
and say it to them again." So Mary went 
and told us a second time and we believed her 
not. She came back to the Lord, and told 
Him. Then the Lord said to Mary and her 
other sisters: "Let us go to them." And 
he went and found us within and called us 
forth. But we thought that it was a phantom 


and believed not that it was the Lord. And 
he said to us : " Come, and . . . thou, 
O Peter, who hast just betrayed [Me] thrice, 
dost thou still deny?" And we approached 
Him, still doubting in our hearts, whether it is 
He. And He said to us : " Why doubt ye 
yet, and are unbelieving? I am He that hath 
told you, so that on account of my flesh and 
my death and my resurrection ye should know 
that it is I. Peter, lay thy finger in the nail- 
prints of my hands; and thou, Thomas, lay 
thy finger in the lance wounds in my side. 
And thou, Andrew, touch my feet, and thou 
wilt see that they . . . those of earth. 
For it is written in the Prophet : * Phantoms 
of dreams . . . upon earth.' " ^ And we 
answered him : " We have perceived in truth 
that ... in the flesh." And we cast 
ourselves on our faces confessing our sins that 
we had been unbelieving. 

D. In his ** Neutestamentliche Parallelen und Ver- 
wandtes aus altchristlicher Literatur," 1903, 
Julius Boehmer publishes a piece from the 
Coptic, which may be considered as a parallel 
to the parable of the good Samaritan. Thus 
we read, p, 25 sq. : " It happened that the 
Lord went forth from the city and walked 
with His disciples over the mountains. And 
they came to a mountain, and the road which 

1 Wisdom of Solomon XVIII. 17. 


led to it was steep. There they found a man 
with a sumpter-mule. But the animal had fal- 
len, for the burden was too heavy, and he 
beat it, that it bled. And Jesus came to him 
and said : * Man, why doest thou beat thy 
animal? Seest thou not, that it is too weak 
for its burden, and knowest thou not that it 
suffers pains ? ' But the man answered and 
said : * What is that to you ? I can beat it 
as much as I please, since it is my property, 
and I bought it for a good sum of money. 
Ask those who are with Thee, for they know 
me and know thereof.' And some of the dis- 
ciples said : * Yea, Lord, it is as he says. 
We have seen how he bought it.' But the 
Lord said : ' Do you not notice how it bleeds, 
and hear you not, how it laments and cries ? ' 
But they answered and said : * Nay, Lord, 
we hear not that it laments and cries.' And 
the Lord was sad and exclaimed : * Woe to 
you, that ye hear not how it complains to the 
creator in heaven and cries for mercy. But 
three times woes to him, of whom it complains 
and cries in its distress.' And He came forth 
and touched the animal. And it arose and its 
wounds were healed. And Jesus said to the 
man : ' Now, go on and beat it no more, that 
you also may find mercy.' " 



Matt. VI, 8. For your Father knoweth what 
things ye have need of, before ye open the 

Codex D or Bezae. 
Matt. X, 23. Flee into the next, and if they perse- 
cute you in the next, flee into another. 

Codex D. so also Ephraem Syrus, Evan- 
gelii concordantis expositio (ed. Mo- 
singer), p. 94. 
Matt. XII, 36. And I say unto you, that men 
must give an account of every good word 
which they shall not speak. 

Cod. C. of the Palestinian Syriac Li- 
Matt. XVII, 2y, Jesus said unto him : " Children 
then are free.'' Simon said unto him: 
** Yea." Jesus said unto him : " Give thou 
also unto them like the stranger." 

Cod. Algerinae Peckover (Cod. Ev. 


Matt. XX, 28. But ye seek to increase from little, 
and from greater to less. When ye go and 
are bidden to dinner, sit not down in the high- 
est places lest a more honorable than thou 
come, and he that bade thee come and say to 
thee : ** Take a lower seat, and you be 
ashamed." But when thou sittest in a lower 
seat, and a less honorable man than thou come, 


then he that bade thee will say unto thee : 
" Go up higher ;" and this will be profitable to 

Cod. D. 
The Syr. Curet. reads the beginning : 
" But ye seek to increase from little, and 
not from greater to less." The Chris- 
tian poet Juvencus of the fourth century 
has incorporated our sayings in his poetic 
Hist. Evang. Ill, 613 sq. beginning: 

" At vos ex minimis opibus transcendere 
Mark IV, 9. Let him hear, and he that under- 
stands let him understand. 
Cod. D. 
Mark IX, 46. Salted with fire and every sacrifice 
shall be salted with salt. 
Cod. D. 
Mark XIII, 37. But what I say to one, I say to 
you all. 

Cod. Bobb. Taurin. In Optatus, De 
schismate Donatistarum I, i, the reading 
is: "What I say to one of you, I say 
unto all." 
Luke VI, 4. At the end of this verse we read: 
The same day, having seen one working on 
the Sabbath, He said to him : ' (5 man, if 
thou knowest what thou doest, thou art 
blessed, but if thou knowest not, thou art ac- 
cursed, and a transgressor of the Law.' 
Codex D. Dean Plumptre, who regards the 


narrative as authentic, remarks : " It brings 
out with a marvelous force the distinction be- 
tween the conscious transgression of a law 
recognized as still binding, and the assertion 
of a higher law as superseding the lower." 
Alford in loco remarks: "The remarkable 
substitution in D for verse 5 seems to be an 
interpolation, but hardly an invention of a 
later time. Its form and contents speak for 
its originality, and, I am disposed to believe 
its authenticity." Farrar (Life of Christ, I, 
439) thinks " the story too striking, too in- 
trinsically probable, to be at once rejected as 
unauthentic." Westcott says : " It is evident 
that the saying rests on some real incidents." 
Ropes also thinks that the saying might be 
possibly authentic. Grotius (Ann. in Evang. 
in loco) conjectured that it might have been 
the marginal gloss of a Marcionite, and di- 
rected against the authority of the O. T. 
Scriptures, but, as Jackson remarks : " This 
seems far-fetched, and the saying has appar- 
ently no such aim. Its force would appear 
to be: Those who work on the Sabbath with 
a full knowledge that it was given for man, 
and that works for God and of mercy do not 
break it, are blessed. Those who work in 
sheer lawlessness, or for mere selfish gain or 
pleasure, are cursed." 

The passage has some value as illustrating 
the very early abrogation of the Sabbath. 


Luke IX, 55, 56. And He said : " Ye know not 
what manner of spirit ye are of; for the son 
of man came not to destroy men's lives, but 
to save." 

Syr. Curet. in loco ; Cod. Colbertin. i. 1. 

and Diatessaron Arabicum ed. Ciasca, p. 

68&. So also in the Vulgate, Textus Re- 

ceptus, Authorized Version and Luther. 

Luke X, 16. He that heareth me, hears him who 

sent me. 

Cod. D. ; Syr. Curet. in loco; Evangel. 
Hieros., p. 464. 
Luke XI, 2. Thy Holy Spirit come upon us and 
purify us. 

Cod. Ev. 604 (=700 Gregory) ed. 
Hoskier, 1890. " This Codex," says 
Nestle (Einfiihrung in das Griechische 
Neue Testament, 2 ed. 1899, p. 71), " dif- 
fers in 2,724 instances from the textus 
receptus; in 270 instances it has readings 
peculiar to it alone, and besides Marcion 
in the second and Gregory of Nyssa in 
the sixth century, is thus far the only wit- 
ness for the second petition of the Lord's 
Prayer (Luke XI, 2) in the form as given 
above. But see Resch, p. 84, where 
other authorities are quoted. 
John XVII, 26. In them. And lifting up his 
hands, Jesus said to His Disciples : " Behold 
the hour is come to drink the cup, which the 
Father hath given Me to drink. I gfo ag^ain 


to My Father who has sent Me; and I say to 
you again: I send you, keep my command- 
ments. Teach what I have taught you, that 
the world may know it; therefore receive the 
Holy Ghost, and whosoever sins ye remit, they 
are remitted unto them, and whosoever sins 
ye retain, they are retained. Ye have heard 
what I said unto you : I am not of this world, 
the Comforter is among you, teach through the 
Comforter. As the Father has sent Me, so 
do I send you. Verily, I say unto you, I am 
not of this world; but John shall be your 
father, till he shall go with Me into the Para- 
dise." And he anointed them with the Holy 

From the Gospel of St. John, preserved 

in the archives of the Templars of St. 

John of Jerusalem in Paris (text is found 

in Thilo Codex Apocryphus Novi Testa- 

menti, p. 880). 
John XIX, 26-30. He says to His Mother: 
" Weep not ; I go to My Father and to eternal 
life, behold thy Son! He will keep My 
place." Then saith He to the disciple: " Be- 
hold thy mother ! " Then bowing His head, 
he gave up the Ghost. — 



(Note. For the sake of convenience we quote the authors 
or sources in alphabetical order.) 

1. It IS written concerning me: ** Blessed are they 

that see me and beheve; and three tunes 
blessed are they that have not seen me and 

Abgari, Epistula, c. 2 (p. 281, ed. Lip- 
sius), see also Doctrine of Addai, p. 4, 
and Eusebius, Hist, Ecclcs. I, 13, 10. 

2. For thus did he command me, saying: "Be- 

hold I send thee like a sheep in the midst of 
wolves, but fear them not." And again he 
said to us : " That through many tribulations 
must ye enter into the Kingdom of God." 

Prochorus, Acts of John (ed. Zahn), p. 


3. For the Lord said unto me : " If you do not 

make your low things high and the high things 
low, and the right as the left, and the left as 
the right, ye shall not enter into my King- 

Acta Philippi, e. Cod. Oxon., c. 34; see 
also Pseudo-Linus, De Passione Pauli et 
Petri (Biblioth. Patr. max. Lugd. II, p. 

4. " Behold, my bridechamber is ready ; but blessed 

is he who has been found in it wearing the 


shining garment; he it is who receives the 
crown upon his head." 

Acta Philippi (Tischendorf Apocal. 
apocr. 1866, p. 147). 
5. And I also heard him saying this : ** They who 
are with me have not understood me." 
Actus Petri cum Simone c . 10. 
5. ** Blessed art Thou, who, although thou hast not 
seen Me, believest in Me, for it is written of 
Me, ' Those who see Me will not believe in 
Me, and those who see Me not, will believe in 
Me/ " 

Doctrine of Addai (ed. Phillips, p. 4). 

7. Thus the Lord commanded us that what we 

preach in word to the people, we should prac- 
tice before every man. . 

Doctrine of Addai, p. 41, 4. 

8. I will not frustrate the word of Christ which 

he spoke to me : " Accept not anything from 
any man, and possess nothing in this world." 
Doctrine of Addai, p. 48, 12. 

9. As also the Lord said in the Gospel : " If any- 

one shall leave all things for My name's sake, 
at the second coming he shall inherit everlast- 
ing life." 

Agathcngelus (ed. Lagarde, p. 34, 81). 

10. And it is written: "Ask great things and the 

small ones will be added to you. Ask heavenly 
things and the earthly will be added." 

Ambrose, Epist, I, 36 ad, Horont,, c. 3. 


11. For the Lord also called the giver more blessed 

than the receiver. 

Anast. Sinaita, qucust. 14 (Migne 89, 
p. 468). 

12. The word of Christ, which he spake to us: 

"Accept not anything from any man, and 
possess not anything in this world." 

Ancient Syriac Documents (ed. Cure- 
ton and Wright), p. 20; see also No. 8. 

13. For thus, they say. He said in the Gospel: 
" Become ye skillful money-changers." 

Apelles in Epiphan., H cores, XLIV, 2. 

14. And when His disciples asked the Lord, why 

they only asked for this only that they said 
unto Him : " Increase our faith." The Lord 
said to them : " If you have faith, a moun- 
tain will also move from you." And He says 
to them : " You shall not doubt and sink in 
the world like Simon, who, when he doubted, 
was on the point of sinking." 

Aphraates, Homilies (transl. by Bert) 

1. 15. 

15. As it is written. . . . Our Lord said: 

" Pray and become not tired." 

Aphraates, Homil. IV, 66. 

16. As. it is written: "First must the one who 
prayeth, who offereth his prayer, well con- 
sider his gift to see whether there be any spot 
found in it, and then shall he offer it, that his 
offering remain not upon the earth." 

Aphraates Homil., p. 66. 


17. And our Saviour says to them: "Ye are chil- 

dren of Cain and not children of Abraham." 
Aphraates, ibid,, p. 278. 

18. For it is written: "The good must surely 
come, and blessed is he by whom it comes ; 
and the bad must surely come; but woe to 
him, through whom it comes/' 

Aphraates, ibid., p. 70. 

19. He told us beforehand, when He taught " The 
weak shall be saved through the strong." 

Apostolic Church Ordinances 26 (in 
Hilgenfeld, Novum Testamentum extra 
canonem. 2d ed. IV, p. 118), quoted by 
Resch as Judicium Petri, p. 104. 
The context in the original is as follows : — 
Andrew said : " It is good, brethren, to ap- 
point a ministry for the women." Peter said : 
" We arranged it before ; but concerning the 
offering of the Body and of the Blood let us 
give exact instructions." John said : " Ye 
forget, brethren, how the Master, when He 
asked for the bread and cup and blessed them 
saying : ' This is my Body and Blood/ did 
not suffer the women to stand with us." 
Martha said : " On account of Mary, because 
He (or because she) saw her smiling. Mary 
said : " I did not laugh : for lie told us be- 
fore when He taught, * the weak shall be saved 
through the strong.' " Kephas said : " But 
remember some (who say) that (it befits) 


women to pray, not standing upright, but 
seated on the ground." 

Ropes calls our saying " beautiful, 
worthy of a place in the Gospel/' 

20. As it is written : " The Lord knoweth them 

that are His, both those that are near and 
those that are far off." 

Apost. Constitutions II, 54. 

21. The Lord when reproaching Jerusalem said: 

" Sodom is justified of thee." 

Apost. Constitut. II, 60; comp. also 
Origen, in Jerem, HomiL, VIII, 7, and in 
Matt. Comment. 76. In the latter pas- 
sage, which is only extant in Latin it 
is quoted as a word of Ezekiel. — There 
seems to be no doubt that the application 
is to Jerusalem of Matt. X, 15, and XI, 
24 : " It shall be more tolerable for the 
land of Sodom in the day of judgment 
than for thee." Had Sodom heard the 
words and seen the deeds of Jesus, " there 
would have been no need for the stern 
surgery which cauterized the Plain of the 
Cities, and Sodom might have been still 

22. Since even the Lord says " the giver was hap- 
pier than the receiver." And it is again said 
by Him : " Woe to those that have, and re- 
ceive in hypocrisy, or who are able to support 
themselves, yet will receive of others ; for both 


of them shall give an account to the Lord God 
in the day of judgment." 

Apost. Constitut. IV, 3; with this may 

be compared the Latin Didascalia, ed. 

Hauler, p. 53, 25; Didascalia IV, 3 ed. 

Lagarde, p. 297; Clem. Alex., Fragmenta 

ex Nicet(B catena in Matt. V, 42 ; Didache 

I, 5 ; Hermas, Mandat. II, 5. 

23. He commanded them to preach the Gospel in 
all world and to make disciples of all nations 
and to baptize into His death. 

Apost. Constitut. V, 7. 

24. These are they concerning whom the Lord bit- 

terly and severely stated that there are false 
Christs and false teachers, who have blas- 
phemed the spirit of grace, and done despite 
to the gift they had from him, after the grace, 
to whom forgiveness shall not be granted, 
neither in this world nor in that which is to 

Apost. Constitut. VI, 18. 

25. Then shall the wicked go to eternal damnation, 

but the righteous shall go unto life eternal in- 
heriting those things which eye has not seen, 
nor ear heard, nor has entered into the heart 
of man, which God prepared for those that 
love him, and they shall rejoice in the King- 
dom of God. 

Apost. Constitut. VII, 32; see also 
Clem. Alex., Protrept. X, 94. 


26. As often as ye eat this bread and drink this 
cup, ye show forth my death, until I come. 

Apost. Constitut. VIII, 12. The same 
we find in i Cor. XI, 26, only that Paul 
uses the third person instead of the first. 
On this account it has been urged that i 
Cor. XI, 26, contains St. Paul's words. 
But it has also been urged that the pas- 
sage as it stands in the Apostolic Con- 
stitutions, being quoted in early Litur- 
gies in the first person, is proof of the 
view of an early period of the Church that 
it was a saying of the Lord's. Thus in 
the Liturgy of St. Mark "ut Origenis 
temporibus legebatur " (see Bunsen, 
Analecta Ante-Nicsena III, p. 117), we 
read : " For as often as ye eat this bread 
and drink this cup, ye show forth my 
death, and confess my resurrection and 
ascension until I come." See also the 
Liturgy of the Apostle James, the brother 
of the Lord in Fabricius Codex Apoc- 
ryphus Novi Test. Ill, p. 127. 

27. For the Logos again says to us : " If anyone 

kiss a second time because it has given him 
pleasure (he sins); adding: Therefore the 
kiss (or rather the salutation) should be given 
with the greatest care, since if there be mixed 
with it the least defilement of thought, it ex- 
cludes us from eternal life." 

Athenagoras, Lcgatio 32. 


28. But our Lord answered the Apostles when they 

asked what we ought to think of the Jewish 
prophets, who, as was supposed, had formerly 
said something concerning His coming, and 
supposing that they (the Apostles) thought 
now something similar : " Ye have dismissed 
the living, who was before you and talk of the 
dead." What wonder when the heretics in- 
vented such things about the prophets — for 
this word belongs to some apocryphal writing 
— since they accept not these writings (i. e., 
the sacred). 

Augustinus, Contra advers, legis et 
prophet, II, 4, 14. 

29. And the Lord says : " Behold, I make the last 

like the first." 

Barnabas VI, 13. 

30. For thus he says : " Those who wish to see 

me and to lay hold upon my Kingdom, must 
receive me through tribulation and suffering." 
Barnabas VII, 11. 

31. According to that word: " Every man who is 

not tempted is not approved." 
Cassian., Coll, IX, 23. 

32. It is also written : " Let thine alms sweat in 

thy land until thou findest the just to whom 
thou givest it." 

Cassiodorus, Exposito in Ps, XL. 

33. On this account the Scripture announces to the 

believer : " The saints of the Lord shall in- 
herit the glory of God and His power " which 


glory, O blessed one? Tell me! "Which 
eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor has en- 
tered into the heart of man. And they shall 
rejoice over the Kingdom of their Lord in 
eternity. Amen." 

Clem. Alex., Protrept. X, 94. 
Klostermann suggests to read : " The 
saints of the Lord shall inherit the glory 
of God and his power (which glory, O 
blessed one? tell me! which . . .) and 
they shall. 

34. " These are they that stretch the warps and 
weave nothing," says the Scripture. 

Clem. Alex., Stromata I, 8, 41. 

35. " Thou seest/' He says, " thy brother, thou 
seest thy God." 

Clem. Alex., Stromata I, 19, 94; II, 

15, 71 ; the same we find in Tertullian de 

orat. 26, only that he reads " Lord " for 

" God." 

26. For he says : " Ask the great things and the 

small ones shall be added unto you." 

Clem. Alex., Stromata I, 24, 158. 
Eusebius in Psalm XVI, 2, quotes this as 
a word of the Saviour. In Stromata IV, 
6, 34 Clement has : " Seek first the king- 
dom* of the heavens and the righteous- 
ness, for these are great things; and the 
small and concerning the food, these shall 
be added to you." In a fuller form the 
saying is given by Ambrose (see above 


lo) and by Origen de orat. libelL II, 14, 

16, also in his S electa in Psalm IV. And 

in against Celsus VII, 44, he says : " For 

he (i. e., the Christian) has learnt from 

Jesus to seek for nothing small or mean, 

that is sensible objects, but to ask only 

for what is great and truly divine." 

37. Rightly therefore, the Scripture in its desire 

to make us such dialecticians, exhorts us: 

" Be (become) ye skilful money-changers," 

rejecting some things, but retaining which is 


Clem. Alex., Stromata I, 28, 177. This 
saying is the most commonly quoted of 
all agrapha. 
Resch gives no less than sixty-nine passages, 
in which this saying occurs sometimes as a 
saying " of the teacher," sometimes " as being 
contained in the gospel" (pp. 1 12-122). 
According to Delitzsch (Ein Tag in Kaper- 
naum, p. 136), the meaning is: "Exchange 
the less valuable for the most valuable, es- 
teem sacred coin higher than common coin, 
and highest of all the one precious pearl of the 
Gospel." Renan (Vie de Jesus, ch. XI, p. 
180, 5th ed.) regards this saying as an ad- 
vice of voluntary poverty. Westcott explains 
" put your talents to good use " (Introd. 4th 
ed., 1872, p. 459), but this explanation Ropes 
regards as unhappy, who believes that the 
meaning is : " We should distinguish between 


good and bad coin." This is also SchafF's 
opinion, who, in quoting the sayings adds " i. 
e., expert in distinguishing the genuine coin 
from the counterfeit." Jackson says : " The 
saying niay also serve to put in a reminder 
of the need of good business habits on the part 
of the clergy as well as the laity. The train- 
ing of the ex-exciseman St. Matthew was no 
doubt exceedingly valuable in the apostolic 
college, and the symbolic representation of the 
first evangelist with an angel holding the im- 
plements of writing is suggestive of the duty 
of every would-be apostle and evangelist. 
The angel of the Lord proffers the ink-horn 
and the pen, and the Lord Himself says: 
** Learn how to use them. Do not suppose 
that you can use them properly by merely 
writing, or even meaning, to use them well. 
The process must be gradual. It is not Be, 
but Become, and get yourselves made, good 
accountants, good bankers/' 

38. Again says the Lord : " He who has married 

shall not send her (the wife) forth; and he 
who has not married shall not marry; and 
who out of chastity has professed not to marry 
shall remain single." 

Clem. Alex., Stromata III, 15, 97. 

39. For it was not grudging that the Lord in a 
certain gospel announced : " My mystery for 
me and for the sons of my house." 

Clem, Alex., Stromata V, 10, 64; Clemen- 


tine Homilies XIX, 20. Theodoret on 
Ps. LXV, connects the saying with Matt. 
VII, 6, but evidently regards it as dis- 
tinct : " Give not," He says, " the holy 
things to the dogs, nor cast your pearls 
before the swine; and my mysteries for 
Me and Mine." It is also quoted, by 
Chrysostom {Epp, ad Corinth. Horn, 
VII, 2). 

40. Therefore the Saviour says : " Save thyself 

and thy soul." 

Clem. Alex., Excerpta ex Theod. 2. 

41. Accordingly He leads us into the liberty of the 

Father, sons that are co-heirs and friends. 
For says the Lord : " They that do the will 
of MY Father are my brethren and fellow- 
heirs. Call no man, therefore, father to your- 
selves on earth. For it is masters that are on 
earth. But in heaven is the Father of whom 
is the whole family, both in heaven and on 

Clem. Alex., Eclogce prophet, 20. 

42. Being especially mindful of the words of the 

Lord Jesus which He spake, Reaching us meek- 
ness and long-sufifering. For thus He spake: 
"Be ye merciful, that ye may obtain mercy; 
forgive, that it may be forgiven to you; as 
yc do, so shall it be done unto you; as ye 
judge, so shall ye be judged; as ye are kind, 
so shall kindness be shown to you; with what 


measure ye mete, with the same it shall be 
measured to you/' 

Clem. Roman. I, 13, 2. 

43. For it is written : " Cleave to the saints, for 
those that cleave to them, shall be made holy.*' 

Clem. Rom. I, 46, 2; see also Clem. 
Alex., Stromata V, 8, 53. 

44. For this reason, if we should do such things, 
the Lord hath said: "And though ye were 
gathered together to me in my very bosom, 
yet if ye were not to keep my commandments, 
I would cast you off, and say unto you, De- 
part from me : I know you not whence ye are, 
ye workers of iniquity." 

Clem. Roman. II, 4, 5. 

45. For the Lord saith : " Ye shall be as lambs in 

the midst of the wolves." And Peter an- 
swered and said unto Him : " What, then, if 
the wolves shall tear in pieces the lambs ? " 
Jesus said unto Peter : " The lambs have no 
cause after they are dead to fear the wolves. 
And do you fear not those who kill you and 
can do nothing to you, but fear him, who, after 
you are dead hath power over soul and body, 
to cast men into hell-fire." 

Clem. Roman. II, 5, 2-4. 

46. The Lord saith in the Gospel : " If ye kept 

not that which is small, who will give you that 
which is great? For I say unto you, that he 
that is faithful in very little is faithful also in 


much." He means accordingly: "keep the 
flesh holy and the seal undefiled, that ye may 
receive life." 

Clem. Roman. II, 8, 5, 6. 
To the first part of the Saying there is 
a parallel in Irenaeus, adv. hccr. IL 34, 3, 
and in Hilarius Epistola seu libellus c. i. 
(ed. Oberthur, tom. IV, p. 7). Some 
writers consider the second part as a sep- 
arate agraphon, so Resch (p. 171). But 
Schaff, Jackson, Klostermann, Preuschen, 
and also Ropes (though he speaks of each 
separately. No. 5, 24), regard it as an 
explanation and application of what has 
gone before. 

47. And thus, as the true Prophet has told us: 

" A false prophet must first come from some 
deceiver, and then, in like manner, after the 
removal of the holy place, the true Gospel 
must be secretly sent abroad for the rectifica- 
tion of the heresies that shall be." And this, 
also, " towards the end Antichrist must first 
come, and then our Jesus must be revealed 
to be indeed the Christ, and after that, the 
eternal light having sprung up, all the things 
of darkness must disappear." 

Clement. Homilies, II, 17. Ropes and 

Resch quote not the words following 

" Christ." 

48. Therefore the true prophet Himself said ; " I 


am the gate of life; he who entereth through 
me, entereth into Hfe." 

Clem., Homilies III, 52. 

50. Again He said : " I am He concerning whom 

Moses prophesied, saying : * A prophet shall 
the Lord our God raise unto you of your 
brethren, like unto me. Hear him in all 
things; and whosoever will not hear that 
prophet shall die/ '' 

Clem. Homilies HI, 53. 

51. And to those who suppose that God tempts, as 

the Scriptures say. He said : " The tempter 
is the wicked one." 

Clem. Homilies HI, 55. 

52. " Be of one mind in many bodies : let each man 
be minded to do to his neighbor those good 
things he wishes for himself.'' 

Clem. Homilies VII, 4; com. also XI, 
4 : " Whatever good things anyone wishes 
for himself, so let him afford to another 
in need;'' also XII, 32: In one word: 
" what he wishes for himself, he wishes 
also for his neighbor," comp. also Justin 
Dialog, cum. Tryph. c. 93. 

53. " God made the heaven and the earth and all 
jthings which are therein," as the true prophet 
said to us. 

Clem. Homilies X, 3. 

54. For thus the prophet has sworn to us, saying: 
" Verily I say to you, unless ye be regenerated 


by living water into the name of the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit, you shall not enter the 
Kingdom of heaven." 

Clem. Homilies XI, 26. 

55. The true Prophet said : " Good must needs 
come and blessed (said He) is he by whom it 
comes/' In like manner also: "Evil must 
needs come, but woe to him through whom it 

Clem. Homilies XII, 29. In the Clem- 
entina Epitome prima -c. 96, secunda c. 
96 (ed. Dressel), the saying is introduced 
by : " Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son 
of God said;" compare above, also No. 

56. " Even if one should do all that is right and 
yet once committeth the sin of idolatry, he 
must be punished," said the prophet. 

Clem. Homilies XIII, 14. 

57. " For there shall be," as our Lord and Saviour 
said, " schisms and heresies." 

Clem. Homilies XVI, 21. This saying 
is also found in Justin, Dialog, ch. 35; 
Didascalia VI, 5 ; Lactantius, Div, Institut, 
IV, 30; Didymus, De Trinitate III, 22. 

58. And elsewhere He said : " He who sowed the 
bad seed is the devil;" and again: "Give no 
pretext to the evil one." 

Clem. Homilies XIX, 2. 

59. " There shall be with me, also, my twelve serv- 


Cod. Askew., p. 215 (Woide in Ap- 
pend, ad ed. N. T. e. Cod. MS. Alexan- 
drino) ; in Pistis Sophia (Germ. ed. by 
Schmidt), p. 148, we read: "Therefore 
I said to you once : * Where I shall be, 
my twelve servants shall also be with 

60. " I shall be 1,000 years, ruling according to the 
years of the light.'' 

Cod. Askew., p. 225. 

61. The disciples thus spake unto Jesus: "Thou 
art a key to every man, and the one who shut- 
teth to every man." 

Cod. Askew., p. 297. 

62. The Lord who is good says : " Let not the 
sun go down upon your wrath.'' 

Dialogus de recta fide, sect. I (Opp. 
Orig. I, 813), where it is quoted twice; 
once in the form as given, and once in 
the form: "And in the Gospel it is." 
In the Vita Syncleticce 63 (Coteler., Ec- 
cles. Graec. Monum. I, p. 242), the say- 
ing is also quoted as a word of the 
Saviour; comp. also Didascalia (Achelis- 
Flemming translation, p. 65). 

63. But also now concerning this, it hath been said : 
" Let thine alms sweat in thy hands until thou 
knowest to whom thou shouldest give." 

Didacke I, 6. Schaff (Teaching of the 
XII Apostles, p. 167), calls this "a 
curious passage quoted as Scripture, from 


oral tradition, or an unknown apocryphal 
book, or some living Prophet. A sim- 
ilar sentence, however, occurs in Ecclus. 
XII, 1-6. Assuming the reading of the 
manuscript, as amended by Bryennios, the 
sentence is a warning against indiscrimi- 
nate and injudicious almsgiving, and 
shows that the author of the Didache did 
not understand the command of the Ser- 
mon on the Mount in a strictly literal 
sense; otherwise he would contradict what 
he said in the preceding lines." What- 
ever the origin of this Logion, it is found 
very often. Besides in Cassiodorus men- 
tioned above under 32, it is mentioned 
four times by Augustin (in Ps. CII, 12; 
Ps. cm, serm. Ill; Ps. CXLVI, 17 
(twice) ; Petrus Comestor, Hist. Scholas- 
tica, c. XV ; Gregor. Magnus, Regtda Pas- 
toralis III, 20; Abselard., De eleemosyna 
sermo (opp. ed. Cousin. I, 552) ; Bern- 
hardi, Epist, XLV; Oraciila Sibyllina II, 
78, 79; Piers the Plowman, B, Passus 
VII, 73-75. The texts are all given by 
Resch, pp. 91, 356. 
64. Therefore I have also said in the Gospel: 
" Pray for your enemies, and blessed are they 
who mourn over the destruction of the un- 

Didascalia V, 15, p. 315, ed. Lagarde. 


65. And then He appeared also unto us. And He 
said unto us instructing us : " By no means 
are you to fast on these days for my sake, or 
have I need that you distress your soul ? " 

Syriac Didascalia, c. XXI, p. 107 (ed. 
Achelis-Flemming) . 

66. And our Lord said : " May they be forgiven." 
And again said the Lord concerning them: 
" My Father, they know not what they have 
done, nor what they say; if possible forgive 

Syriac Didascalia, c. XXV, p. 127. 

67. And He (i. e., Christ) said: "The last day 
shall come like a thief in the night." 

Didymus, de Trinitate HI, 22; Epiph., 
Hceres, LXIX, 44 : " For like a robber in 
the night, so shall the day come." In 
Ancor. XXI, Epiphanius writes : " For 
He (i. e., the ^on) says: * Like a thief 
in the night shall that day come/ " 

68. As He said : " I have chosen you before the 
earth was made." 

Ephraem Syrus, Evangelii Concordan- 
tis expositio (ed. Mosinger), p. 50. 

69. As Christ protected his sheep in all distress, He 
also comforted them in this solitude in the 
distress, saying : " I am with him who is 
alone," that those who are lonesome may not 
be distressed; for He is our joy and is with 
tis. " And where there are two, I shall be with 


them," for the mercy of His grace is a cover 
over us. " And when we are three," we meet 
so to say, as if in the congregation. 
Ephraem Syr., ibid., p. 165. 

70. " But where the pains are, thither hasteneth the 


Ephraem Syr., ibid., p. 200. 

71. He therefore calls the peacemakers sons of 
God, as He also saith : " Those who walk in 
the Spirit of God, are the sons of God." 

Ephraem Syr., ibid,, p. 63. 

72. And that He was troubled agrees with that 
which He said : " How long shall I be with 
you and speak with you ? " And in another 
place : " I am disgusted with that generation. 
They tempted Me," He said, " ten times, but 
these twenty times and ten times ten." 

Ephraem Syr., ibid,, p. 203. 

73. For he said : " He will cleanse the house of 
His Kingdom from every stumbling block." 

Ephraem Syr., ibid,, p. 211. 

74. " And blessed are they who have hungered and 
thirsted, for they shall be filled there. And 
woe unto them that are full, for they shall 
hunger and thirst there. And blessed are they 
that mourn and weep, for there they shall 
laugh and be comforted. And woe unto them 
that laugh now, for there they shall mourn 
and weep unceasingly. And blessed are the 
merciful, for there they shall obtain mercy. 


And woe to those that are not merciful, for 
they shall not obtain mercy." 

Ephraem Syr. Opp. I, 30, E. (ed. Asse- 

75. And again : " God resisteth the proud, but giv- 

eth grace unto the humble." 

Ephraem Syr. Opp. Ill, 93, E. 

76. " I am He that speaks in the prophets." 

Epiphan., Hceres XXIII, 5; XLI, 3; 
LXVI, 42;^wcor. LIII. 
yy. " The Father begat me," He said, " and I came 
forth from the Father, and I am here." 
Epiphan., ihid,, LXIX, 53. 

78. And again in another place : " I knock and if 
one open for me, we will come in to him, I and 
my Father, and make our abode with him." 

Epiphan., ibid,, LXIX, 63. 

79. He said that " he who knoweth Me knoweth 
the Father, and he who seeth Me has seen the 

. Father." 

Epiphan., ibid,, LXXVI, 6. 

80. " The laborer is worthy of his hire, and suffi- 

cient unto him that laboreth is his food." 
Epiphan., ibid,, LXXX, 5. 

81. " Honor the demons, not that ye may be as- 
sisted by them, but that they may not injure 

Euthymius Zigabenus, Panoplia Dog- 
matica tit. XXVII, 2, current among the 
Bogomiles. The dictum is claimed to be 


written in the gospels as a word of the 

82. Such is also the meaning of the Gospel : " there 
is a confusion which leads to death, and a con- 
fusion which leads to life/' 

Hieronymus in Ezech, XVII (Opp. Ill, 
p. 807, ed. Martianay) ; the same we also 
read in Hieron., Epistola ad Pammachium 
(IV6., p. 584). 

83. Afterwards, Jesus appeared unto the eleven as 
they sat at meat, and upbraided them with 
their unbelief and hardness of heart, because 
they had not believed them which had seen Him 
arising. And they excused themselves to Him, 
saying: "This age of iniquity and unbelief 
is under the power of Satan, who by means 
of unclean spirits permitteth not the power of 
God to be perceived. For that reason, reveal 
now Thy righteousness." 

Hieronymus, adv. Pclagium II, 15 

(IV. p. 521). 

84. Jesus, the living, answered and said to His dis- 

ciples : " Blessed is he who is crucified unto 
the world and whom the world did not 

The first book of Jeu (ed. Schmidt 
from the Coptic — together with Pistis 
Sophia in a German translation, 1905), p. 


85. For I know and believe that after His resur- 
rection He lived in the flesh. For when the 


Lord came to Peter and to the Apostles, He 
said to them : " Lay hold, handle Me, and 
see that I am not an incorporeal spirit." And 
immediately they touched Him, and believed, 
being both convinced by His flesh and spirit. 
Ignatius, ad Sniyrn, III, i, 2; Pseudo- 
Ignatius, ad Smyrn. Ill, p. 244, 14. 
Ignatius, who cites these words, does not 
say whence he drew them; but Hieronymus 
(De viris inlustribus 16) informs us that 
they were taken from the Gospel of the He- 
brews. In his commentary on Isaiah XVIII 
(preface), Jerome informs us that according 
to the Gospel which the Nazarenes call that of 
the Hebrews, the apostles believed Jesus to be 
" incorporale dsemonium." Eusebius (Hist. 
Eccles. Ill, 36, 11), remarks that he knows 
not whence the words of Ignatius were taken. 
Origen {De prin, I prooem. 8), speaks of a 
passage in that book which is called the " Doc- 
trine of Peter," where the Saviour said to His 
disciples : " I am not an incorporeal demon 
(daemonium incorporeum)," and adds that any 
one who quotes this is to be replied first that 
this writing belongs not to those received by 
the Church ; then it is to be shown that it was 
written neither by Peter nor by any one who 
was inspired by the Spirit of God. 
86. Also when He says : " I often desired to hear 
one of these words, and had not one to tell 
me," thus they assert that by " one " He meant 


to designate the true God, whom they had not 

Irenaeus I, 20, 2 = Epiph., H ceres, 34, 18. 

87. " Badly is gypsum mixed in the pure milk of 


Irenaeus III, 17, 4. In the Muratorian 
Fragment, line 67, we read : " For gall 
loth not mix well with honey." Without 
figure we read the same Pseudo-Ignatius, ad 
Trail. VI. : " Some one of the elders said : 
* No one shall be called good who mixeth evil 
with the good ' " ; the same we also read in 
the ancient Latin version of Ignatius (ed. La- 
garde, p. 9, 41). 

88. As the elders relate, who saw John the disciple 
of the Lord, that they had heard from him 
how the Lord taught of those days and said: 
— "The days will come in which vines shall 
spring up, each bearing ten thousand stocks, 
and on each stock ten thousand branches, and 
on each branch ten thousand shoots, and on 
each shoot ten thousand bunches, and on each 
bunch ten thousand grapes, and each grape 
when pressed shall yield five and twenty meas- 
ures of wine. And when any one of the Saints 
shall have caught hold of one bunch, another 
shall cry: 'Better bunch am I: take me:, by 
means of me bless the Lord.' Likewise also 
a grain of wheat shall hold ten thousand ears 
of corn, and each ear shall hold ten thousand 
grains, and each grain ten pounds of simila 

SayinCS S9 

pure and clear; and so the rest of the fruits 
and seeds and each herb after its kind. And 
all animals using those foods that are got from 
the ground shall live in peace and concord, 
subject to man with all subjection." These 
things, Papias, who was a hearer of John and 
a companion of Polycarp, an ancient worthy, 
witnesseth in writing in the fourth of his books, 
for there are five books composed by him. 
And he added, saying : " But these things are 
credible to them that believe." And when 
Judas the traitor did not believe, and asked: 
" How shall such growth be accomplished by 
the Lord ? " He relates that the Lord said : 
*' They shall see who shall come to these 

Irenaeus V, 33, 3 sq. ; Hippolytus, 
Comm, in Danielem^ IV, 60 (ed. Bon- 
wetsch, p. 338), mentions also the con- 
versation of Judas. 
The passage in Irenaeus is extant only in 
the Latin translation. ** It is evident that this 
famous passage gives only a very imperfect 
representation of the discourse of the Lord to 
which it refers, for I think that it is certainly 
based on a real discourse. It must be observed 
that the narration is now only preserved in a 
Latin translation of a free quotation from 
Papias, who gave it on the authority of those 
who had heard St. John speaking of teaching 
of the Lord to such effect. The history of the 


tradition is a sufficient explanation of the cor- 
ruption which it has suffered. " (Westcott, 
Introduction to the study of the Gospels, p. 
450, Boston, 1867.) Ropes admits that West- 
cott's view cannot very well be refuted, al- 
though it is difficult to perceive at present the 
genuine matfer. Schaff regards it as fabulous, 
and borrowed from the Apocalypse of Baruch. 
This is also the opinion of Schiirer (Geschichte 
des Jiidischen Volkes, vol. Ill (3d ed. 1898), 
p. 229. But this argument is not strong 
enough, as such descriptions are also found in 
rabbinic writings (see Schiirer, 1. c, vol. II, p. 
541). The latest author on the Apocalypse of 
Baruch, R. H. Charles, thinks that both Papias 
or Irenaeus and the author of the Apocalypse 
have perused the same original source (Apoc- 
alypse of Baruch, London, 1896, p. 54» riote 
5 ) . Farrar ( Life of Jesus I, p. 3 19 sq. ) , says : 
" If we could attach any importance to the 
strange story quoted by Irenaeus, we should 
only see in it a marked instance of this playful 
and imaginative manner in speaking at un- 
constrained moments to the simplest and truest 
hearted of His followers. The words which 
have evidently been reflected and reported by 
various media through which they have reached 
us, may have been uttered in a sort of divine 
irony, as though they were a playful descrip- 
tion of Messianic blessings to be fulfilled, not 


in the hard Judaic sense, but in a truer and 
more spiritual sense." Shahan says : " This 
archaic and venerable fragment (viz., of Pa- 
pias), of the preaching of Jesus appeals to us 
as a genuine * Saying.' It is vouched for by 
witnesses very ancient and very holy. That 
they were Millenarians need not disturb us; 
who in those days would not have eagerly 
looked for a time of joyous respite from the 
flagellations that Christians were receiving 
from all the ' elements of the world ' ? We 
know now that such language is hyperbolical, 
like those ' hundred mothers ' that we are to 
receive in Christ Jesus for the abandonment 
of an earthly mother (Mark X, 29, 30). The 
Abbate Ceriani, apropos of his edition (Milan, 
1866), of a Syriac text known as * the Apoc- 
alypse of Baruch,' which some place as early 
as A. D. 70 maintains that the origin of the 
* Papias-Sayings ' is referable to that period. 
Perhaps the emotions aroused by the complete 
destruction of the Holy City in that year, the 
absolute and rapid verification of the prophecy 
of Christ, the domestic belief concerning the 
Second Advent as due during the life of John 
(John XXI, 23), and the abundant apocalyptic 
literature that sprang into existence among the 
Jews as a balm for their broken hearts and 
shattered hopes, furnished the circumstances 
amid which arose many reminiscent conversa- 


tions and humble writings about Jesus, due to 
men who had seen and known him. Of these 
Papias would be the last echo, delicate and 
faint, but true, like the roar of the surf borne 
far inland on the wings of night and breathing 
to mankind its pulsing message of elemental 
strife and life, but also the assurance of secur- 
ity behind an impregnable bulwark." 

89. As his word says : " A share is allotted to all 
by the Father, according as each person is or 
shall be worthy." 

Irenseus V, 36, 2. 

90. And again He saith : " Blessed he who existed 

before the beginning of man." 

Irenaeus, eis epideixin, c. 43 (a treatise 
rediscovered in the Armenian). 

91. He spoke thus : " I came not to call the right- 
eous, but sinners to repentance. For the heav- 
enly Father desires rather the repentance of 
the sinner than his punishment." 

Justin, Apolog. I, 15. 

92. The new law wishes you to sabbatize always. 

Justin, Dial, with Trypho, c. 12; see 
also Tertull., adv, Judceos, c. 4; Pseudo- 
Hieron., Indiculus de hceresibus (Corpus 
haeresiologicum, ed. Oehler, p. 283) 
writes : " The Masbotheans say that it 
was Christ Himself who taught those to 
sabbatize in everything." 

93. For He said : " Many shall come in my name, 
clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but in- 


wardly they are ravening wolves. And there 
shall be schisms and heresies." 

Justin, Dial., c. 35 ; see above No. 57. 

94. For I know that the word of God said : ** This 
great wisdom of the maker of all and almighty 
God shall be hidden from you." 

Justin, ibid,, c. 38. 

95. And our Lord Jesus Christ said : " In what- 

soever things I may find you, in this will I 

also judge you." 

Justin, ibid., c. 47; Resch quotes eight- 
een other authors who have this logion 
(p. 322 sq.). 

96. Wishing to show them this also, that it is not 

impossible for flesh to ascend into heaven as 
He had said " that our dwelling-place is in 
heaven." He was taken up into heaven while 
they beheld, as He was in the flesh. 

Justin, de resurrectione 9. Kloster- 
mann writes Justin (?), Ropes, Pseudo 
( ?) Justin, Resch believes in the author- 
ship of Justin and against Bousset refers 
to Bonwetsch's article on Justin Martyr in 
Herzog RE, 3d ed. IX, 644. 

97. Law and Logos the Saviour is called, as Peter 

says in the Kerygma (i. e.. Preaching). 

Kerygma Petri in Clement Alex., Eclog. 
prophet. LVIII. The same we also find 
by Clement in Stromata I, 29, 182; II, 15, 
68. In the Martyrium Petri, c. 9 (p. 97, 
ed. Lipsius) and Pseudo-Linus, Mar- 


tyrium Petri, c. 14 (p. 17, ed. Lipsius) 
Christ is called by the Spirit " The word 
and voice of God." 
[Peter says in " the Preaching," ^ that the 
best among the Greeks know God not accord- 
ing to his true meaning, but only in outlines. 
* Know therefore that there is a God, who 
made the beginning of all and has power also 
over the end.' And *the invisible who sees 
all, the incomprehensible, who comprehends 
everything; who has no need, yet whom all 
need and through whom everything is; incom- 
prehensible, eternal, incorruptible, uncreated 
who has created all through the " word " of his 
power ' (not that of the Gnostic writing), 1. e., 
'through His Son.' ^ He then continues: 
" This God you shall not worship after the 
manner of the Greeks." What he understands 
by " manner of the Greeks," Peter himself 
explains, when he continues : " Out of igno- 
rance and because they did not know God like 
we by a perfect knowledge, over which he had 
given them the power, they made for their 
use stocks and stones, metal and iron, gold and 
silver, and by making use of their matter, they 
put up these servants of the true being (i. e., 

1 For the benefit of the student we give all the " Remains 
of the Kerygma of Peter" that are extant, though the parts 
in [) do not exactly belong to the category of agrapha. 

2 Comp. to this : " for * one is ' indeed " God, " who cre- 
ated the beginning of all," as Peter writes, thinking of the 
first-born son, although he knew very well " in the beginning 
God made the heavens and the earth." 

Clem. Alex. Stromata VI, 7, 58. 


God), and worship (besides) what God gave 
them for food, the fowls of the air, the fish 
of the sea, the creeping things of the earth 
and the wild animals, together with the quad- 
rupeds of the field, the weasel and mice, cats 
and dogs and apes, and their own victuals they 
sacrifice as offerings to edible animals, dead 
things they offer to the dead. And thus they 
are ungrateful to God, thereby denying his 
existence.^ And that we and the Greeks in- 
deed know the same God, only that He is not 
named in the same manner, these words may 
also be referred to " worship Him also not 
after the wise of the Jews; for they too im- 
agine to know God alone, and yet know Him 
not; they serve angels and archangels, the 
month and the moon. And when the moon 
appears not, they celebrate not the so-called 
first Sabbath, observe not the new moon and 
the feast of unleavened breads, nor the Pente- 
cost, nor the great day (of atonement)." 

He then quotes the sentence from the al- 
leged writing : " Therefore you also accept 

^Here we may quote what Origen Comment, in John 
XIII, 17 says: It would lead too far to quote the words 
which Heracleon uses from the so-called " Preaching of 
Peter" and to inquire whether the writing is genuine or 
spurious, or is composed of genuine and spurious pieces. On 
this account I am satisfied to refer only to that part in which 
Peter is said to teach " that one should not worship God 
after the manner of the Greeks, by taking earthly things 
(as God) and worshipping wood and stones. They must 
also not worship God after the manner of the Jews, since 
they also who alone pretend to know God, do not know Him, 
^d worship angels and the month and the mooq," 


piously and rightly what we transmit to you; 
be careful to worship God in a new way 
through Jesus Christ. For we find in the 
Scripture as the Lord says : ' Behold, I make 
for you a new covenant, not as I made it for 
your fathers at Mount Horeb/ A new one 
He made for us; the old one ^as that of the 
Greeks and Jews — ye Christians are those 
who as third generation worship Him in a new 

Kerygma Petri in Clem. Alex., Stro- 
mata VI, 5, 39-41.] 
98. Therefore asserts Peter that the Lord said to 
the Apostles : " If any one of Israel should 
repent and by my name believe in God, his 
sins shall be forgiven him. After twelve 
years go forth into the world, that no one may 
say : * We have not heard.* " 

Kerygma in Clem. Alex., Stromata VI, 
5, 43. From Apollonius Eusebius (Hist. 
Eccles. V, 18, 14) quotes: "He speaks 
moreover of a tradition that the Saviour 
commanded His apostles not to depart 
from Jerusalem for twelve years." In 
the Codex Askew. (Woide in Appendice 
ad edit. cod. Alex., p. i), we read: 
"Jesus, after His ascension into heaven 
descended again to earth and for eleven 
years. He instructed His disciples in va- 
rious mysteries and commanded Philip, 
Thomas and Matthaeus that they put down 


in writing His words and deeds which 
they have seen and heard during that 
space of time." 

99. In the ** Preaching of Peter " the Lord says to 

the disciples after the resurrection : " I have 
chosen you twelve disciples, judging you 
worthy of me, and whom I supposed to be 
faithful messengers, and sent you forth into 
the world to preach the Gospel to those living 
upon earth, that by believing on me they per- 
ceive that there is only one God and to reveal 
the future that those who hear it and believe 
it, be saved; those however, who believe not, 
must bear witness that they heard it and have 
no excuse to say: * We have not heard it.' " 
Kerygma in Clem. Alex., Stromata VI, 

100. It has been said from the very first to all in- 
telligent souls : " What one of you docs in 
ignorance without knowing God well, — but 
when he knows him and repents all sins shall 
be forgiven him." 

Kerygma, ibid, 
[Hence Peter says in the " Preaching," 
when speaking of the apostles : " But when 
we opened the books of the Prophets, which 
we had at hand, in which they mention Jesus 
Christ, partly in parables, partly in enigmas, 
partly directly and in clear words, and found 
in them His coming and death, and the cross 
and all other torments which the Jews inflicted 


Upon Him, and His resurrection and ascension 
before the judgment over Jerusalem, how 
everything was written what He had to suffer 
and what shall be afterwards. Having per- 
ceived this we came to the belief in God on 
account of what the Scripture said concerning 

Kerygma in Stromata VI, 15, 128. 
And a little further on he states that the 
prophecies originated through Divine Provi- 
dence, alleging the following : " For we knew 
that God really commanded this and without 
(the testimony) of the Scripture we say noth- 

loi. (Jesus says) : " I have come to you with a 
sign from your Lord: Out of clay will I 
make for you, as it were, the figure of a bird, 
and I will breathe into it, and it shall become, 
by God's leave, a bird. And I will heal the 
blind, and the leper; and by God's leave will 
I quicken the dead; and I will tell you what 
ye eat, and what ye store up in your houses! 
Truly in this will be a sign for you, if ye are 

Koran, Sura III, 43 (Rodwell's transl., 

p. 501). The first part reminds of the 

Gospel of Thomas, ch. 2; and Arabic 

Gospel of the Infancy, ch. 36, 46. 

102. Remember when the apostles said — " O Jesus, 

son of Mary ! is thy Lord able to send down a 


furnished table to us out of heaven ? " He 
said: "Fear God if ye be believers." They 
said : " We desire to eat therefrom, and to 
have our hearts assured; and to know that 
thou hast indeed spoken truth to us, and to 
be witnesses thereof." Jesus, Son of Mary, 
said : " O God, our Lord ! Send down a 
table to us out of Heaven, that it may become 
a recurring festival to us, to the first of us and 
to the last of us, and a sign from Thee, and 
do Thou nourish us, for Thou art the best of 
Nourishers." And God said : " Verily, I will 
cause it to descend to you ; but whoever among 
you after that shall disbelieve, I will surely 
chastise him with a chastisement, wherewith I 
will not chastise any other creature." 

Koran, Sura V, 112-115 (Rod well, p. 

651), a reference is here evidently to the 


103. And as Jesus, the Son of Mary, said : " O 
children of Israel ! of a truth I am God's apos- 
tle to you to confirm the law which was given 
before me, and to announce an apostle that 
shall come after me whose name shall be 
Ahmad!" But when he (Ahmad) presented 
himself with clear proofs of his mission, they 
said: "This is manifest sorcery." 

Koran, Sura LXI, 6 (Rodwell, p. 522). 

104. (Jesus says) : " And I have come to attest 
the law which was before me, and to allow 
you part of that which had been forbidden 


you ; and I come to you with a sign from your 
Lord: Fear God, then, and obey Me; of a 
truth God is my Lord, and your Lord : There- 
fore worship Him. This is a right way." 

Koran, Sura III, 44, 45 (Rodwell, p. 


105. "O ye who believe! be helpers of God;" as 
said Jesus, the Son of Mary, to His apostles. 
"Who will come to the help of God?" 
" We," said the apostles, " will be the helpers 
of God." And a part of the children of Israel 
believed, and a part believed not. But to those 
who believed gave we the upperhand over 
their foes, and soon did they prove victorious. 

Koran, Sura LXI, 14 (Rodwell, p. 523). 

106. And when Jesus came with manifest proofs 
He said : " Now I am come to you with wis- 
dom; and a part of those things about which 
ye are at variance I will clear up to you ; fear 
ye God therefore and obey me. Verily, God 
is my Lord and your Lord ; wherefore worship 
ye Him : this is a right way." 

Koran, Sura XLIII, 63, 64 (Rodwell, 

p. 155). 

107. Jesus, on Whom be peace, had said : " The 
world is but a bridge over which you must 
pass, but must not linger to build your dwell- 

Smith, Life of Dr. Duff II, 164. This 
agraphon Dufif saw engraved on stone, 
in large characters in Arabic, inside the 


chief gateway of a mosque at Sikri, about 
twenty-four miles to the west of Agra. 
It is possible that it belongs to the many 
sayings scattered in Muhammedan writ- 
ings, some of which are collected by Lc- 
vinus Warnerus in notis ad. Centuriam 
Proverbiorum Persicorum, proverb, 6i, p. 
30 sq. Lugd. Batav., 1644, and from 
which Hofmann, Leben Jesu, quotes the 
following : 

108. Jesus, the Son of Mary, said : " He who is 
greedy of riches is like one who drinketh water 
from the sea. The more he drinketh, the 
more he increaseth his thirst; and he ceaseth 
not to drink until he perisheth." 

109. Jesus said to John, the son of Zacharias : " If 
any one speaketh something true about thee, 
praise God; but if he uttereth lies about thee, 
praise God the more. For thereby shall thy 
treasure in the book of thy works be increased, 
and that without trouble to thee ; that is to say, 
whatever of good that person hath done shall 
in thy book be written." 

1 10. Jesus once said in the form of a parable, that 
the world is like a decrepit old woman of whom 
He asked : " How many husbands hast thou 
had?" Then answered she that she had had 
so many that they could not be numbered. 
And Jesus said : " Then, they died, and left 
thee?" "No indeed," said she, "I killed 
them, and put them out of the way." Then 


said Jesus : " It is wonderful that the others 
were so foolish, that when they saw how thou 
hadst treated these, they burned with love to- 
wards thee, instead of taking example by 

1 1 1, Now, in the time of Jesus, three persons were 
once traveling, and they found a treasure. 
Then they said : " We are an hungered, so 
let one of us go and buy food." Now, as one 
of them went to get the food, he said to him- 
self : " It would be a good idea to poison the 
food, that the others may eat it and die, so 
that I alone may have the treasure." So he 
mingled poison with the food. But the two 
travelers who were left agreed between them- 
selves that when he should bring the food they 
would kill him. So^ when he brought the 
poisoned food they killed him ; but they them- 
selves ate of it, and thereupon died. And, be- 
hold, Jesus passed by with his disciples, and 
said : " This is the way of the world ! Ye 
see how it dealeth with these three; but it it- 
self remaineth in its condition. Woe unto 
him who seeketh the world in the world." 

112. In the Gospel it is thus written: "O son of 
man, when I give you riches and power, ye 
transfer all your aspirations and all your care 
from me to the riches and power. But when 
I make you poor, ye grow weary for sadness 
and for anxious care. Where will ye find the 


loveliness of my name, and when will ye bring- 
to maturity reverence for Me ? " 

According to Hofmann from Musladini 
Sadi (13th cent.), Gulistan sive Rosarii 
Persici, c. 8, p. 517, who quotes it from 
a gospel. 

113. Lead us not into temptation, which we cannot 

Liturgy of Alexandria (ed. Swainson), 
p. 6; so also in the Syriac Liturgy of St, 
James (ed. Swainson), p. 343. 

1 14. Our Lord said unto John : " Come, baptize 
thou Me." And he said to Him : " It can- 
not be that I should commit robbery." 

Liturgy of Severus (de ritibus baptismi 
liber, p. 25). 

115. For he (the apostle) said: "The slothful 
shall not eat ;" and in another place : " God 
also hates the slothful, and the slothful cannot 
believe ;" and the wisdom said : " Slothful- 
ness has taught much evil." 

Macarius, de oratione, c. 10. 

116. Moreover said the Lord to them: "What 
do you admire the signs ? I give you a great 
inheritance which the whole world has not." 

Macarius, Homil, XII, 17. 

117. But hear the word of the Lord: " Take care- 
of faith and hope, through which comes the 
God-loving and kindly love, which brings life 

Macarius, Homil. XXXVII, i. 


1 1 8. " Be ye strong in war and fight with the old 
serpent, and ye shall receive the eternal King- 
dom," says the Lord. 

Old English Homilies and homiletic 
treatises of the 12th and 13th cent, ed. by 
R. Morris (first series, part II, London,"' 
1868, being No. 34 of the Early English 
Text Society, p. 151 sq., Sermon XVI; 
second series, 1873, No. 53, p. 185 sq., 
Sermon XXX) ; see also the Play of the 
Sacrament, p. 39. V. 864 (ed. W. 
Stokes for the Philological Society, Ber- 
lin, 1862). It is also found in the Bre- 
viarium Rom^num (see Zeitschrift fiir 
Katholische Theologie XVIII, 1894, p. 


119. " If the Son is mightier than God, and the Son 
of Man is Lord over Him, who else than the 
Son can be Lord over that God who is the ruler 
over all things ? " 

Origen against Celsus VIII, 15. Ac- 
cording to Origen, Celsus quotes this from 
" A Heavenly Dialogue," now no more 

120. From some other form of heresy Celsus seems 
to have quoted : " How is it that so many go 
about the well, no one goes down into it ? " 

Origen, ibid. VIII, 16; in VIII, 15, it 
is also given as a quotation from " A 
Heavenly Dialogue." 


121. " Why art thou afraid when thou hast gone so 
far on the way? " 

Origen, ibid., 15, 16. 

122. " Thou art mistaken, for I lack neither courage 
nor weapons." 

Origen, ibid,, 15, 16. 

123. " Blessed is he who also fasts for this, that he 
might feed the poor." 

Origen, Homil. in Levit, X, 2. Har- 
nack, art. Apostel-lehre in Herzog R E, 
3d. ed., p. 727, calls this an enigmatical 

124. And in the gospel it is written: "And wis- 
dom sends forth her children." 

Origen, in Jerem. Homil, XIV, 5. 

125. For the Saviour Himself said: " He who is 
near me is near the fire, he who is far from me 
is far from the Kingdom." 

Origen in Jerem. Homil. XX, 3 (ex- 
tant in Jerome's Latin translation) ; the 
same we also find in Didymus of Alexan- 
dria on Ps. LXXXVin, 8 (Mai, Nov. 
Bibl. Vn, 2, 267). At the suggestion 
of Harnack, Resch would read " father " 
for " fire." 

126. Jesus saith : " On account of them that are 
infirm, was I infirm, and on account of them 
that hunger did I hunger, and on account of 
them that thirst, did I thirst." 

Origen in Matth, torn. XHI, 2. (Opp. 


III, 573.) Klostermann suggests to read: 
"Jesus saith on account of the infirm: 
*I was infirm' (Matt. XXV, 36), and 
on account of them that hunger : * I did 
hunger/ (Matt. XXV, 35), and on ac- 
count of them that thirst : * I did thirst ' " 
(Matt. XXV, 35). Resch objects to this 
mode of reading, which would deprive the 
saying of the character of an agraphon. 
Jackson remarks (p. 35): "The Saying 
as given by Origen, states the final cause of 
the hungering, thirsting, and sickness of the 
Saviour to have been the help of the hungry, 
the thirsty, and the sick; primarily it may be 
understood of the hungry and thirsty for God 
and His righteousness, and of the weak for 
want of His strength. It will, however, in- 
clude the idea of His coming to help sufferers 
from all human want and suffering, even the 
simplest and least elevated, not indeed that His 
salvation will save men from sickness, hunger 
and thirst, but it will enable them to suffer 
sickness, hunger and thirst, and all pain, with 
the thought of the Friend near and the rest 
127. In the Acts of Paul a saying is written as 
spoken by the Lord: "From above (or 
again?) I am about to be crucified." 

Origen in Joann, tom. XX, 12. This, 
word is connected with the " Domine-quo- 


vadis " story, found in the Passion of 
Paul and Peter, Peter fleeing from Rome 
to escape persecution, meets the Lord, and 
asks Him where He is going. The Lord 
replies : " I am going to Rome to be 
crucified again." 

128. There is also another place which is called the 
middle of the world, where the Lord put His 
finger, saying : " This is the middle of the 

Philippus, descriptio terrce Sane tee (ed. 
W. Neumann in Oesterreichische Viertel- 
jahrsschrift fiir Kathol. Theologie, 1872, 
p. 37). Besides this notice of Philippus, 
who lived about 1289, Resch quotes five 
other authorities containing this statement, 
p. 289 sq. 

129. " Rejoice and be glad and add joy above your 
joy, for the times are fulfilled that I may put 
on my garment which is prepared for me from 
the beginning. . . . Rejoice and be glad, 
for you are blessed above all men on earth, 
because it is you who shall save the whole 

Pistis Sophia, p. 9 (ed. Schmidt, he\p- 

zi& 1905). 

130. Therefore I said to you once: "You shall 
sit upon your thrones in My Kingdom to my 
right and to my left, and reign with Me." 

Pistis Sophia, p. 148. 


131. Wherefore I once said to you: "Where I 
shall be, my twelve servants shall also be with 

Ibid., p. 148; see above No. 59. 
1.^2. " That mystery I am and I am that mystery. 
I am they and they are I." 
Ibid,, p. 148. 

133. On this account, therefore, I said once to you: 
" Renounce the whole world and the entire 
matter in it, that you gather not for you other 
matter to that which is already in you." 

Ibid., p. 161. 

134. Verily I say unto you: "Whosoever has 
quickened my soul and has preserved her apart 
from his light in the kingdom of light, will 
receive another glory in place of the soul which 
he has preserved." 

Ibid., p. 172. 

135. Therefore I once said to you: "Those mys- 
teries shall not only forgive them their sins, 
which they have committed from the begin- 
ning, but they impute them not from that hour 
on, of which I have spoken to you." 

Ibid., p. 200. 

136. " Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for 
railing, or blow for blow, or cursing for curs- 

Polycarp to the Philippians II, 2; see 
also Acta Philippi in Anastasius Sinaita 
(Cotolerius, Monum. Eccl. Graec. Ill, p. 


137. The Lord Himself instructs and admonishes 
us in the epistle of His disciple John to the 
people : " You see Me thus in yourselves as 
one of you sees himself in the water or a mir- 

Pseudo-Cypnan, de duobus montibus 
Xni. The treatise De duobus montibus 
is said to belong to the oldest literature 
of the Latin Church. And in this an 
apocryphal epistle of John " ad populum " 
is mentioned. But what this epistle was 
which is claimed to have contained this 
saying we know not. 

138. The Lord admonishes and says : " Grieve not 
the Holy Spirit which is in you, and do not 
extinguish the light which shines in you." 

Pseudo-Cyprian, de aleatoribus 3. 

139. "Whatsoever brother liveth in the manner of 
the aliens, and alloweth things like unto their 
deeds, refrain from being in his company, 
which, unless thou doest, thou also wilt be a 
partaker with him." 

Pseudo-Cyprian, de aleatoribus 4. 

140. He commanded to be watchful, circumspect 
and well-instructed, since that ancient enemy 
goeth about attacking the servants of God. 

Pseudo-Cyprian, ibid., 5. 

141. " Woe unto those who do anything through 
their own presumption, and not through God." 

Pseudo-Cyprian, de singularitate cleri- 
corum, c. 43. 


142. " If any one does not work, let not such an 
one eat, for in the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
eat thy bread,'' read the words. 

Pseudo-Ignatius to the Magnesians IX, 3. 

143. " No one shall be called good who mixeth evil 
with the good." 

Pseudo-Ignatius to the Trallians VI; 
so also the Ancient Latin Version, ed. 
Lagarde, p. 9, 41. 

144. And do ye also reverence your bishop as 
Christ Himself, according as the blessed apos- 
tles have enjoined you. He that is within the 
altar is pure, wherefore also he is obedient to 
the bishop and presbyters; but he that is with- 
out is one that does anything apart from the 
bishop, the presbyters, and the deacons. Such 
a person is defiled in his conscience, and is 
worse than an infidel. 

Pseudo-Ignatius to the Trallians VII; 
in the shorter form of Ignatius' epistle we 
read : " He that is within the sanctuary 
is pure, but he that is without is not 
pure;" that is, he who does anything 
apart from the bishop, and presbytery and 
deacons, such a man is not pure in his 
conscience. — It is probably an oversight 
that the text of the shorter form as given 
by Resch (p. 268), omits the last "not." 

145. For the Lord has said in a mystery: "Un- 
less ye make the right as the left, the left as 
the right, the top as the bottom, and the front 


as the backward, ye shall not know the King- 
dom of God." 

Pseudo-Linus, Martyrium Petri (ed. 

Lipsius-Bonnet in Acta Apost. Apocrypha 

I (i89i),p. 17). 

146. Excepting a very few saints and illustrious 
ones : " men have thought to atone for their 
crimes with a few pieces of money," as one 
of them said. 

Salvianus, de gubernio VII, 14. This 
is a fragment of a Latin hexameter verse 
taken from some old Christian poet (per- 
haps like Juvencus, d. 330). 

147. " My friend, I do thee no wrong, thou hast re- 
ceived thine own in thy lifetime, take now what 
is thine and depart." 

Sergius, the reformer of the Paulicians 
(died 835), who quotes this as a word of 
Christ, see Zahn, Geschichte des Neutest. 
Kanons II, 455. 

148. The rabbis transmitted the following: When 
Rabbi Eliezer was seized on the charge of 
being a Christian, he was brought before the 
judge to be sentenced. The judge said to 
him : " Thou, an aged man, busy thyself with 
such idle matters ? " Eliezer replied : " The 
Judge is just toward me." The judge thought 
that Eliezer meant him, whereas he thought 
of his Father in Heaven. The judge said: 
" Since I trust you, you are discharged." 
Upon returning home, his disciples came to 


him, to comfort him, but he would not be 
comforted. Then said Rabbi Akiba to him: 
"Allow me to say something, which I have 
learned from thee." He replied : " Go on." 
Rabbi Akiba said : " Perhaps you did hear 
once of a heresy, which pleased thee, on which 
account thou hast been charged with heresy." 
Eliezer replied : " Akiba, thou just remindest 
me (of some thing). Once upon a time I was 
walking in the upper street of Sepphoris, when 
I met one of the disciples of the Nazarene 
Jesus, Jacob of Kefar Sekanya, who said to 
me : * It is written in your law : " Thou shalt 
not bring the hire of a whore into the house 
of God. May a water-closet be made with it 
for the high priest ? " ' I knew not what to 
answer to this question. , Whereupon he said 
to me: * Jesus of Nazareth thus taught me: 
" She gathered it of the hire of an harlot and 
the hire of a harlot it shall become again 
(Mic. I, 7) ; it came from an impure source, 
and to an impure place it shall go again." ' 
This exposition pleased me and on this account 
I was accused of heresy, because I transgressed 
the word of Scripture : * Remove thy way 
far from her'" (Prov. V, 8), i. e., from 

Talmud, Aboda Zarah, fol. 16, col. 2; 
17 col. i; comp. also Midrash Koheleth 
(i. e., on Ecclesiastes I, 8). The authen- 
ticity of the narrative is defended by the 


late Jewish scholar Derenbourg in " Es- 
sai sur V histoire et la geographic de la 
Palestine," p. 357-360; Schiirer in his re- 
view of Tottermann, R. Eliezer ben Hyr- 
canos sive de vi qua doctrina Christiana 
primis sceculis illustrissimos quosdam 
Judceorum attraxit, Lipsiae, 1877 (in 
" Theol. Literaturzeitung," 1877, col. 
687-689), and in his Geschichte dcs 
JUdischen Volkes zur Zeit Jesu II, 372 
(Leipsig, 1898), regards the whole as a 
legend. Of the same opinion is the late 
Edersheim in his Life and Times of Jesus, 
the Messiah I, 527. But as conversations 
between Christians and Jews are men- 
tioned in the Talmud, we see no reason 
why this narrative should be rejected. 
The Eliezer here mentioned, flourished 
between 90-120 A. D., when intercourse 
between Christians and Jews was of a 
frequent occurrence. The narrative is 
also quoted by Ropes and Klostermann. 
149. Imma Salome, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer and 
sister of R. Gamaliel (II), had a philosopher 
in the neighborhood who was reputed for his 
integrity. They wished to have a laugh at 
him. So Imma brought him a golden candle- 
stick, came before him and said : " I wish to 
have a portion of the property of my father." 
The philosopher said to them: "Divide." 
But she said to him ; " We have the law : 


* Where there is the son, the daughter shall not 
inherit/" He said to her: "From the day 
you were exiled from your land, the law oi 
Moses is abrogated and the gospel given, in 
which it is said : * Son and daughter shall 
inherit alike.' '' On the following day Gama- 
liel brought him a Libyan ass. He (the phi- 
losopher) said to them : " I examined the pas- 
sage of the gospel referred to, and there it is 
written : ' I, Gospel, came not to take away 
from you the Law of Moses, but I came to 
add to the Law of Moses.' It is written in the 
Law of Moses : * Where there is a son, the 
daughter shall not inherit.' " Imma said to 
him : " May thy light shine like the candle- 
stick." Rabbi Gamaliel said : " The ass has 
come and knocked down the candlestick." 
Talmud, Sliabbath, fol. 116, col. i, 2. 

150. ** Watch and pray," He says, 'Mest ye fall 
into temptation . . . for withal the word 
had gone before that no one untempted should 
attain the celestial Kingdom." 

Tertullian, de Captis,, c. 20. This say- 
ing is also found by different writers. 

151. There are they of whom the Scripture says: 
** Woe unto those who join together their of- 
fences as with a long rope." 

TertulL, de pccnit,, c. 11. 

152. The word of the gospel which reads: ''For 
the fashion of this world passeth away." 

Theod. Balsamo, Epistola de Rasor 

&AYiNGS iig 

phoris, (Migne, Patr. Graeca torn. 
CXXXVIII, 1373). 

153. This is also one of the traditions of Christ 
that one should care for those things which 
are necessary for the body, and be anxious 
about nothing further save virtue. 

Theodotus Monachus, Catena on Matt. 
in Fabricius Codex Apocr. N. T. Ill, p. 

154. For the Lord Christy said (to Peter) : " Verily 
thine eye shall never be closed in eternity for 
the light of this world." 

Vita Schnudi (an Egyptian monk of 
the 5th cent.), p. 313, of Amelineau's 
Arabic text; Germ, transl. by Iselin in 
Texte und Untersuchungen XIIl, i, p. 26. 



A, Patristic Notes. 

In the oldest list of sacred writings, in the 
so-called Muratorian Fragment of the second 
century, we read : " The apocalypses also of 
John and Peter only do we receive, which 
(latter) some among us would not have read 
in church." But before this mention Clement 
of Alexandria in his Hypotyposes, according 
to the testimony of Eusebius (Hist. EccL VI, 


14), gave ''abridged accounts of all the 
canonical Scriptures, not even omitting those 
that are disputed, I mean the book of Jude and 
the other general epistles; also the Epistle of 
Barnabas and that called the Revelation of 
Peter." Also in his Eclogce Propheticce 
(chaps. 41, 48, 49), Clement gives some quo- 
tations from the Revelation of Peter, men- 
tioning it twice by name (see below). 

Methodius, bishop of Olympus in Lydia, 
who died as martyr in 311, in his Symposium, 
II, 6, says : " Wherefore we have also 
learned from divinely inspired Scriptures that 
untimely births, even if they are the offspring 
of adultery are delivered to care-taking angels." 
Though Peter is not here mentioned, the pur- 
port of the passage is the same as that of one 
of the quotations given by Clement. 

Eusebius (d. 339 A. D.), in his Ecclesias- 
tical History III, 25, expressly mentions the 
Revelation of Peter along with the Acts of 
Paul and the Pastor of Hermas as spurious 
books, while in III, 3, he says : " As to that 
which is called the ' Preaching ' and that called 
the ' Apocalypse of Peter,' we know nothing 
of their being handed down as catholic writ- 
ings. Since neither among the ancients nor 
among the ecclesiastical writers of our own 
day has there been anyone that has appealed 
to testimony taken from them." 

Macarius Magnes in his Apocritica IV, 6, 


quotes about the year 400, as from a heathen 
opponent of Christianity the following : " Let 
us by way of superfluity cite also that saying 
in the Apocalypse of Peter," etc., and at IV, 
16, he examines this passage again, naming 
the Revelation of Peter, and supporting the 
doctrine of the passage by authority of proph- 
ecy and the gospel. 

In the Catalogus Claromontanus, written in 
the sixth century, the oldest Graeco-Latin 
Manuscript of the Pauline epistles, the Revela- 
tion of Peter stands at the end, after the Shep- 
herd of Hermas and the Acts of Paul, whereas 
in the Stichometry of Nicephorus it stands 
among the " antilegomena," or disputed writ- 
ings, of the New Testament. The list also 
gives the length of the Revelation, viz. : " Cata- 
logus Claromontanus 270 stichoi, and the 
Stichometry thirty more." 

This was all that was known of the Revela- 
tion of Peter till the year 1886, when a frag- 
ment of the Revelation was discovered by the 
French Archaeological Mission in an ancient 
burying place at Akhmin, in Upper Egypt. 
It was published by Bouriant in Memoires pub- 
lics par les membres de la Mission Archeolog- 
ique Frangaise au Caire, Paris, 1892, and rep- 
resents probably about the half of the entire 
work. It begins in the middle of an escha- 
tological discourse of Jesus, probably repre- 
sented as delivered after the resurrection, for 

I ig A? OCALVtSE 0^ PEtER 

verse five implies that the disciples had beguil 
to preach the gospel. It ends abruptly in the 
course of a catalogue of sinners in hell and 
their punishments. It is possible that the 
fragments preserved by Qement of Alexandria 
and Methodius may have been part of the end 
of the book, whereas the fragments preserved 
by Macarius may have belonged to the es- 
chatological discourse at the beginning. But 
be it as it may, the Revelation of Peter now 
accessible in Harnack's, Preuschen's and Klos- 
termann's editions of the text, " affords the 
earliest embodiment in Christian literature of 
those pictorial presentations of heaven and hell 
which have exercised so widespread and en- 
during an influence. It has, in its imagery, 
little or no kinship with the Book of Daniel, 
the Book of Enoch, or the Revelation of St. 
John. Its only parallels in canonical scripture, 
with the notable exception of the Second Epis- 
tle of Peter, are to be found in Isa. LXVI, 24 ; 
Mark IX, 44, 48 and the parable of Dives and 
Lazarus in Luke XVI. It is indeed Judaic 
in the severity of its morality and even in its 

A. The Fragment of Akhmm, 

Many of them will be false prophets, and 
will teach divers ways and doctrines of perdi- 

AtdCALYfSfi OP PEtEfe 119 

tion. 2. But these will become sons of per- 
dition. 3. And then God will come unto my 
faithful ones who hunger and thirst and are 
afflicted and purify their souls in this life, and 
he will judge the sons of lawlessness. 

And furthermore the Lord said : " Let us go 
into the mountain, let us pray." 5. And going 
with him, we, the twelve disciples, asked that 
he would show us one of our brethren, the 
righteous who are gone forth out of the world, 
that we might see of what manner of form 
they are, and having taken courage, might 
also encourage the men that hear us. 

And as we prayed, suddenly there appeared two 
men standing before the Lord on whom we 
were not able to look. 7. For there came 
forth from their countenance a ray as of the 
sun, and their raiment was shining, such as eye 
of man never saw; for no mouth is able to 
express or heart to conceive the glory with 
which they were endued, and the beauty of 
their appearance. 8. As we looked upon them 
we were astounded; for their bodies were 
whiter than any snow and ruddier than any 
rose. 9. And the red thereof was mingled 
with the white, and I am utterly unable to ex- 
press their beauty. 10. For their hair was 
curly and bright and seemly both on their face 
and shoulders as it were a wreath woven of 
spikenard and divers-colored flowers, or like 
a rainbow in the sky; such was their seemli- 


ness. II. Seeing therefore their beauty we 
became astounded at them, because they ap- 
peared suddenly. 12. And approaching the 
Lord, I said: "Who are these?" 13. He 
saith to me: "These are our (other reading 
"your") brethren the righteous, whose forms 
ye desired to see." 14. And I said to him: 
"And where are all the righteous or what is 
the aeon in which they are having this glory? " 
15. And the Lord showed me a very great 
country outside of this world, exceeding 
bright with light, and the air was lighted with 
the rays of the sun, and the earth itself bloom- 
ing with unfading flowers and full of spices 
and plants, fair-flowering and incorruptible 
and bearing blessed fruit. 16. And so great 
was the perfume that its odor was borne thence 
even unto us. 

17. And the inhabitants of that place were clad in 
the raiment of shining angels and their rai- 
ment was like unto their country. 18. And 
angels hovered about them there. 19. And 
the glory of the inhabitants there was alike, 
and with one voice they sang praises alter- 
nately to the Lord God, rejoicing in that place. 
20. The Lord saith to us : " This is the place 
of your high-priests, the righteous men." 

21. And I saw another place over against that, 
very dark ; and it was the place of punishment ; 
and those who were punished there and the 
punishing angels had a dark raiment like the 


air of the place. 22, And some were there 
hanging by the tongue: these were those who 
blasphemed the way of righteousness, and un- 
der them was fire burning and punishing them. 

23. And there was a great lake, full of flaming 
mire, in which were certain men who had per- 
verted righteousness and tormenting angels 
afflicted them. 

24. And there were also others, women, hanging 
by their hair over that mire that bubbled up; 
and these were they which adorned themselves 
for adultery; and they who had mingled with 
them in the defilement of adultery, were hang- 
ing by the feet and had their heads hidden in 
the mire, and said : " We did not believe to 
come into this place." 

25. And I saw the murderers and those who con- 

spired with them, cast into a certain strait 
place, full of evil vermins, and they were bit- 
ten by those beasts, and they turned to and 
fro in that punishment. And worms afflicted 
them as dark clouds. And the souls of the 
murdered stood by and looked upon the pun- 
ishment of these murderers and said : " O 
God, thy judgment is just. 

26. And near that place I saw another strait place 

into which the gore and the filth of those who 
were being punished ran down and became 
there as it were a lake. And here sat women 
having the gore up to their necks, and over 
against them sat many children who were born 

i2i Apocalypse 6P tfef £r 

out of due time and cried. And there came 
forth from them sparks of fire and smote the 
women in the eyes. These were they which 
conceived without being married and caused 
2y. And other men and women were burning up 
to the middle and were cast into a dark place 
and were beaten by evil spirits, and their in- 
wards were eaten by restless worms. These 
were they who persecuted the righteous and 
delivered them up. 

28. And near by them were again women and men 

gnawing their own lips and being punished 
and carried in their eyes a red-hot iron. They 
were those who blasphemed and spoke evil of 
the way of righteousness. 

29. And over against these again other men and 
women gnawing their tongues and having 
flaming fire in their mouths. And these were 
the false witnesses. 

30. And in a certain other place there were pebbles 

sharper than swords or any spit, red-hot, and 
women and men in tattered and filthy raiment 
rolled about on them in punishment, and these 
were the rich who trusted in their riches, and 
had no pity for orphans and widows, but de- 
spised the commandment of God. 

31. And in another great lake, full of matter and 

blood and mire bubbling up stood men and 
women up to their knees. These were the 


usurers and those that take interest on inter- 

32. And other men and women were being hurled 

down from a great cliff and reached the bot- 
tom, and again were driven by those who were 
set over them to climb up upon the cliff and 
thence were hurled down again, and had no 
rest from this punishment. And these were 
they who defiled their bodies acting as women ; 
and the women which were with them were 
those who lay with one another as a man with 
a woman. 

33. And alongside of that cliff there was a place 

full of much fire, and there stood men who 
with their own hands had made for themselves 
carven images instead of God. And alongside 
of these were other men and women having 
rods of fire and striking each other and never 
ceasing from such punishment. . . . 

34. And others again near them, women and men, 

burning and turning themselves and roasting. 
And these were they who had left the way of 
God. . . . 

B. The Other Fragments. 

I. The Scripture says that infants that have been 
exposed are delivered to a care-taking angel, 
by whom they are educated and so grow up, 
" and they will be," it says, " as the faithful 
of a hundred years old are here." Hence 


Peter also says in the Revelation, " and there 
came forth from those children sparks of fire 
and smote the women in the eyes." 
Clem. Alex., Eclog, pro ph. XLI. 

2. For instance, Peter in the Apocalypse, says 

" that the children who are born out of due time 
shall be of the better part: and that these are 
delivered over to a care-taking angel, that they 
may attain a share of knowledge and gain the 
better abode after suffering what they would 
have suffered if they had been in this body; 
but the others shall merely obtain salvation as 
injured beings to whom mercy is shown, and 
remain without punishment, receiving this as 
a reward. But the milk of the women run- 
ning down from their breasts and congealing," 
says Peter, in the Apocalypse, " shall engen- 
der small flesh-eating beasts, and these run up 
upon them and devour them.'* Peter teaches 
by this, that this punishment is because of the 

Clem. Alex., Eclog. XLVIII seq. 

3. Whence also we have received in divinely in- 

spired Scriptures that untimely births are de- 
livered to care-taking angels, even if they are 
the offspring of adultery. For if they were 
born contrary to the meaning and the order 
of that blessed nature of God, how could he 
then deliver them to the angels, that they 
might enjoy the greatest rest and comfort? 
How would they otherwise openly bring their 


parents before the judgment of Christ, ac- 
cusing them and saying : " Thou hast not, 
O Lord, enviously withheld from us this com- 
mon light; but these, disregarding thy com- 
mandment, have exposed us, that we had to 

Methodius, Symposium II, 6. 

Over and above let this also yet be added, what 
is read in the Apocalypse of Peter. He in- 
troduces the judgment over heaven and earth 
with the following words : " The earth shall 
present all men before God at the day of judg- 
ment, being itself also to be judged, with the 
heaven also which encompasses it." 

The heathen (Porphyry?) by Macarius 
Magnes, Apocritica IV, 6, 16. 

And he also says the word which is wholly 
wicked : " And all power of heaven shall melt 
and the heaven shall be rolled up like a book, 
and all stars shall fall down as the leaves from 
the vine and as the leaves fall from the fig- 

Ibid, IV, 7. 



Adeney (in The Hibbert Journal III, 1905, 139-159). 

Anger, Synopsis Evangelica, Lipsiae, 1852, p. 12-16, 
270 sq., 275. 

Anger, Ratio quo loci Veteris Testamenti in Novo 
laudantur (three University-progr., 1861-62, es- 
pecially III). 

Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altchristlichen Littera- 
tur, 1902, Vol. I, 379-383. 

Baring-Gould, Lost and Hostile Gospels, London, 
1874, pp. 119 sq. 

Barnes (in Journal of theological studies, VI, 1905, 

Baur, F. Chr., Kritische Untersuchungen ueber die 

Evangelien, 1847, PP- 571-582. 
Baur, F. Chr., Christenthum und Christliche Kirche, 

2d ed., i860, p. 25. 
Bleek, Beitraege zur Evangelienkritik, 1846, pp. 60- 

Bleek, Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 3d ed. by 

Mangold, 1875, §§ 44-46; 4th ed., 1886, pp. 128- 

Chrzaszcz, De Evangelio sec. Hebraeos, diss. Gleiwitz, 

Chrzaszcz, Die apokr. Evangelien, ibid., 1888. 
Credner, Beitrage zur Einleitung in die biblischen 

Schriften, 1832, I, 379-414. 


Credner, Einleitung, 1836, p. 89 sq. 

Dalman, Worte Jesu II, 1898, I, p. 49. 

Delitzsch (in Zeitschrift fuer Lutherische Theologie, 

1850, pp. 456-494; 1853, P- 97 sq.; 1856, p. 75 sq. 
Delitzsch, Des Apostel Paulus Romerbrief, ins He- 

braische iibersetzt, 1870, p. 16 sq. 
De V/ette, Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einlei- 
tung in die Bibel, II, 1826, pp. 79-86. 
De Wette, Einleitung ins Neue Testament, 4th ed., 

1842 (reviewed by Schwegler in Zeller's Jahr- 

biicher, 1843, III, pp. 550-563). 
Ebrard, Wissenschaftliche Kritik der Evangelien, 

1842, p. 933-946; 3^ ed., 1868, pp. 979-1004. 
Ehrhard, die altchristliche Litteratur und ihre Er- 

forschung, 1900, pp. 139, 140. 
Eichhom, Einleitung ins Neue Testament, I, 1805, 

§§ 2-9, pp. 6-38; 2d ed., 1820, pp. 7-43. 
Emmerich, De evangelic secundum Hebraeos, Aegyp- 

tios et Justini, 1807. 
Ewald, Ursprung und Wesen der Evangelien (Jahr- 

biicher der bibl. Wissenschaften VI, 1854, pp. 

Fabricius, Codex Apocryphus Novi Testament!, I- 

II Hamburg, 1703 (Vol. I, 2d ed., pp. 346, 351 

Franck, Ueber das Evangelium der Hebraer (Theolog. 

Studien und Kritiken, 1848, pp. 369-422). 
Fries, Det fjardt Evangeliet och Hebreerevangeliet, 

Stockholm, 1898. 
Gieseler, Historisch-Kritischer Versuch fiber die Ent- 

stehung und fruhesten Schicksale der Schrift- 

lichen Evangelien, 1818, pp. 9-1 1. 
Gla, die Originalsprache des Matthaeus Evangelium, 

1887, pp. 101-121. 


Grabe, Spicilegium SS. Patrum, 1698, pp. 15--31. 

Handmann, das Hebraerevangelium (Texte u. Un- 
tersuchungen, V. 3), 1888, 26-103. 

Hamack Altchristliche Litteraturgeschichte I (1893), 
6-10; II, I, 625-651. 

Hilgenfeld, Novum Test, extra canonem, 1866, 2d 
ed. 1884, fasc. IV, pp. 5-38. 

Hilgenfeld (in Zeitschrift fuer wissenschaftliche 
Theologie, 1863, pp. 345-385 ; 1867, pp. 303 sq., 
366 sq. ; 1868, p. 22 sq. ; 1884, PP- 188-194 (with 
reference to Nicholson's work) ; 1889, pp. 280- 
302 (with reference to Handmann's work). 

Hilgenfeld, Einleitung ins Neue Testament, 1875, p. 
452 sq. 

Holtzmann, Lehrbuch der hist. Kritischen Einleitung 
in das Neue Test. ; 3d ed. 1892, pp. 487-489. 

Hug, Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testa- 
ments, 1804, §§ 8-12; 2d ed. 1847. II> PP- 15- 

Jiilicher, Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 1894, pp. 

191, 236 a. o. 
Keim, Geschichte Jesu von Nazara I, 1867, 29 sq. 
Kirchhofer, Qucllensammlung zur Geschichte des 

Neutest. Kanons, 1842, 448-460. 
Klostermann, Apocrypha II (in Kleine Texte fuer 

theologische Vorlesungen, ed. by Lietzmann, 

Bonn, 1904). 
Kruger, Geschichte der Altchristlichen Litteratur, 

1898, § 16, p. 32; Nachtrage, p. 12. 
Leipoldt, Entstehung des Neutestamentlichen Kanons, 

1907, pp. 71 sq., 117, 122, 133, 139, 166, 174. 
Lessing, Neue Hypothese iiber die Evangelisten 

(Werke ed. by von Maltzahn, XI, 2, 121 sq.). 
Meyer, A. das Hebraerevangelium (in Hennecke, 


Neutest. Apokryphen, 1904, p. 11 sq., and in 

Hennecke, Handbuch zu den Neutest. Apokry- 
phen, 1904, p. 21 sq. 
Michaelis, Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 1750, 

4th ed. 1788, II, § 138, pp. icx)4-43. 
Mill, Prolegomena in Novum Testamentum, § 45-49. 
Nestle, Novi Testament! Supplementum, 1896, pp. 

Nestle (in Evangel. Kirchenblatt fuer Wiirttemberg, 

189s, No. 26, p. 295; Zeitschrift fuer Neutesta- 

mentliche Wissenschaft, 1902, p. 167, against 

which see Dalman and Robinson). 
Nicholson, the Gospel according to the Hebrews, 1. c. ; 

London, 1879 (see Hilgenfeld). 
Nicolas, :£tudes sur les Evangiles Apocryphes, 1866, 

p. 23 sq. 
Nosgen (in Zeitschrift fiir Kirchliche Wissenschaft 

u. Kirchliches Leben, 1889, 499-519, 561-578, on 

Handmann's work). 
Olshausen, die Echtheit der vier Kanonischen Evan- 

gelien erwiesen, 1823, pp. 40-90. 
Paulus, Exegetisch Kritische Abhandlungen, 1784, I, 


Preuschen, Antilegomena, 1901, pp. 3-8, 106-110; 2d 
ed. 190S, pp. 3-9, 136-141. 

Resch, Agrapha (Texte und Untersuchungen V, 4), 
1889, 322-342; 2d ed. 1906, pp. 363-371- 

Reuss, Geschichte der Schriften des Neuen Test., 5th 
ed. 1874, § 183 sq., p. 197 sq. 

Robinson, Three notes on the Gospel of the Hebrews 
(Expositor, 1897, 194-200). 

Ropes, die Spriiche Jesu (Texte und Untersuchun- 
gen XIV, 2), 1896, pp. 77-92. 

Schleiermacber, Versuch iiber Lucas, 1817. 


Schmidt, Entvvurf einer bestimmten Unterscheidung 

verschiedener verloren gegang. Evangelien 

(Henke's Magazin, IV, 576). 
Schmitz, De Evangeliis quae ante canonica in usu 

ecclesiae Christ, fuisse dicuntur, 1812. 
Schneckenburger, Ueber den Ursprung des ersten 

Evangeliums, 1834, pp. 105-171. 
Schwegler, Nachapostolisches Zeitalter I, 1846, 197- 

216, 237-241 (see above de Wette). 
Simon, R. Histoire critique du Nouveau Test., 1689, 

c. 7, 8. 
Stroth, Fragmente des Evang. nach d. Hebr. aus 

Justin d. Mart, (in Eichhorn, Repertorium fiir 

bibl. Literatur, 1777, I, pp. 1--59). 
Thiersch, Versuch zur Herstellung des histor. Stand- 

punktes fiir die Kritik der Neutest. Schriften, 

1845, PP- 185-202, 224-230. 
Variot, Les Evangiles apocryphes, 1878, p. 341 sq. 
Volkmar, die ReUgion Jesu, 1857, P- 4^- 
Volkmar, Ursprung Unserer Evangelien, 1866, p. 

Weber, Neue Untersuchung iiber Alter und Ansehen 

des Hebraer Evangel., 1805. 
Weiss, B. Lehrbuch der Einleitung in das Neue Test., 

1886, § 45, 5 p. 495 sq. 
Weizsacker, Untersuch. iiber die Evangelische 

Geschichte, 1864, p. 223 sq. 
Westcott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, 

Boston, 1867, p. 454 sq. 
Zahn, Geschichte des Neutest. Kanons II, 642-723. 
Zahn, der zerrissene Tempelvorhang (in Neue Kirch- 

liche Zeitschrift, 1902, 729-756). 



Credner, Beitraege, etc., 332-347. 

Harnack, Altchristliche Litteraturgeschichte I, 383- 

386; II, I, 625-631. 
Hilgenfeld, Novum Testamentum, etc., IV, 32-38. 
Klostermann, Apocrypha II (1904), p. 8 sq. (text). 
•Leipoldt, Entstehung, pp. 119, 136, 141, 160 sq. 
Meyer in Hennecke Neutest. Apokryphen, 1904, p. 

24 sq. and Handbuch, p. 42 sq. 
Nestle, Novi Test. Supplementum, p. 75 (text). 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, 2d ed. 1905. 
Zahn, Geschichte des N. T. Kanons II, 724-742. 


Baring-Gould, Lost and Hostile Gospels, London, 

1874, pp. 224-231. 
Deissmann, Theologische Literaturzeitung, 1901, col. 

72, 92 sq. 
Ehrhard, die Altchristliche Literatur, pp. 136-139. 
Emmerich, De Evangel, secundum Ebraeos, Mgypt. 

atque Justini mart., Argentor., 1807. 
Harnack, Altchristliche Litteraturgeschichte, I, 12- 

14; II, I, 612-622. 
Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, 1904, pp. 

21-23, Handbuch der Apokryphen, 1904, pp. 38- 

Hilgenfeld, Novum Testamentum extra canon, re- 

ceptum, IV, 1884, 42-48. 
Klostermann, Apocrypha II, in " Kleine Texte " ed. 

Lietzmann, 1904, p. 12 sq. 
Leipoldt, Entstehung, pp. 140, 159, 174, 178. 


Nestle, Novi Test. Graeci Supplementum, 1896, p. 

72 sq. . 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, 1905, pp. 2-3 (text; pp. 

135-136, translation). 
Resch, Zeitschrift fuer Kirchliche Wissenschaft u. 

Kirchl. Leben, IX (1888), 232-245. 
Resch, Agrapha (in Texte und Untersuchungen, V, 

4), 316-319, 384-387. 
Ropes, Spriiche Jesu (ibid. VIII, 2, 1896), 129-132. 
Schneckenburger, Ueber das Evang. der ^gypter, 

Berne, 1834. 
Volter, Petrusevangelium oder iEgypterevangelium ?, 

Tubingen, 1893. 
Zahn, Geschichte des Neutest. Kanons II, 2, 628- 



Ehrhard, die Altchristliche Literatur, p. 141 seq. 
Harnack, Altchristliche Litteraturgesch. I, 14 sq. ; 

II, I, 592 sq. 
Hennecke, Neutest. Apokryphen, p. 39 sq. 
Hennecke, Handbuch, p. 90. 
Klostermann, Apocrypha II, p. 13. 
Leipoldt, Entstehung, etc., pp. 100 sq., 131, 141, 160, 

174, 179 sq. 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, p. 21. 
Zahn, Geschichte des Neutest. Kanons II, 761-768. 


Ehrhard, Altchristliche Literatur, p. 142. 
Harnack, Altchristl. Litteraturgesch. II, i, 595-598. 
Hennecke, Ncutestamentliche Apokryphen, p. 167. 
Hennecke, Handbuch, p. 238 sq. 


Hilgenfeld, Novum Test. IV, 49 sq. 

Leipoldt, Entstehung, pp. 53, 71, 102, 159 sq., 180. 

Klostermann, Apocrypha II, 14 sq. 

Nestle, Novi Test, suppl., p. 74. 

Preuschen Antilegomena, p. 13 sq. 

Zahn, Gesch. des Neutest. Kanons II, 751-761. 


Baring-Gould, Lost and Hostile Gospels, p. 293 sq. 

Ehrhard, 1. c, p. 140. 

Harnack, 1. c, I, 14 sq. ; II, i, 592 sq. 

Hennecke, Apokryphen, p. 40 sq. 

Hennecke, Handbuch, p. 91 sq. 

Klostermann, 1. c, p. 15. 

Nestle, 1. c, p. 74. 

Preuschen, 1. c, p. 15. 

Zahn, 1. c, II, 2, pp. 761-768. 


Baring-Gould, ibid., 286 sq. 
Hennecke, Apokryphen, p. 42. 
Hennecke, Handbuch, p. 94. 
Klostermann, ibid., p. 15 sq. 
Preuschen, ibid., p. 82 sq. 


Ehrhard, ibid., 123 sq. 

Bickell, Ein Papyrusfragment eines nichtkanonischen 
Evangeliums (in Zeitschrift fur Kathol. Theo- 
logie 9 (1885), 498-504, 560; 10 (1886), 208 sq. 

Bickell, das nichtkanonische Evangelienfragment (in 


Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus 

Rainer I (1887), 53-61; V (1892), 7&-S2. 
Chiapelli, Studii di antica letteratura Cristiana, Turin, 

1887, 1-19, 219-222. 
Harnack in Theologische Litteratur-Zeitung, 1885, 

Harnack, Das Evangelienf ragmen t von Fajjum (in 

Texte und Untersuchungen 5, 4 (1889), 481- 

Harnack, Geschichte der Altchristlichen Litteratur I, 

6; H, I, 590, note i. 
Harnack, Ueber die Jungsten Entdeckungen (in 

Preussische Jahrbiicher 92 (1898), 199). 
Hilgenfeld, Kein neuentdecktes Evangelium (in Zeit- 

schrift fuer wissenschaftliche Theologie 29 

(1886), 5(^58). 

Klostermann, Apocrypha H, 11. 

Nestle, Novi Testamenti Graeci Supplementum, p. 67. 

Nosgen, das angebliche Papy rusf ragmen t (in Zeit- 

schrift fuer Kirchliche Wissenschaft u. Kirch- 

liches Leben, 6 (1885), 462-470). 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, p. 21 sq. 
Wessely, Ueber das Zeitalter des Wiener Evangelien- 

papyrus (in Zeitschrift fuer Kathol. Theologie 

II (1887), 507-516. 
Zahn, Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanons II, 

2 (1892), 780-790. 


a. The Gospel Fragments, 
Buchler, A., The new " Fragment of an Uncanonical 
Gospel " (Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. XX 
(1908), No. 78. 


Grenfell und Hunt, New Sayings of Jesus and Frag- 
ment of a lost Gospel, London — New York, 

Grenfell und Hunt, Fragment of an Uncanonical Gos- 
pel (discovered in December, 1905), London — 
New York, 1908, p. 16 sq. 

Preuschen, Das neue Evangelienfragment von Oxy- 
rhynchos (Zeitschrift fiir die Neutest. Wissen- 
schaft, IX (1908), part i). 

6. The Oxyrhynchus — Logia, 

(Note. As the discovery of these Logia became productive 
of a large number of articles and pamphlets, and revived the 
Agrapha-study, we give here the agrapha-literature in gen- 
eral. The list is certainly the most comprehensive which 
has ever been published. Works published before the year 
1897 refer to the so-called Agrapha or extra-canonical say- 
ings of Jesus found in patristic literature and elsewhere. 
Works published in and after 1897, have reference to the 
so-called Oxyrhynchus-Logia.) 

Abbot, E. A., The Logia of Behnesa (American Jour- 
nal of Theology, January, 1898). 

Academy, the, July 31, 1897. 

Athenaeum, the, July 24, Aug. 7, 1897. 

Aubert, Les nouveaux Logia de Jesus (Liberte 
Chret., 1898, pp. 103-115). 

Bartlet, the Oxyrhynchus Sayings of Jesus (Contem- 
porary Review, January, 1905). 

Batiffol (in Revue Biblique, 1897, 1904). 

Batiffol (in Revue de Thistoire et de litter, relig., 1897, 
438 sqq. 

Berlin, The Logia (Jewish Quarterly Review, 1897, 
p. 190). 

Berliner Wochenschrift fuer Classische Philologie, 
Oct. 20, 1897. 


Blass (in Evangel. Kirchenzeitung, 1897, 498-500. 

British Review, July 24, 1897. 

British Weekly, Aug. 12, 1897. 

Bruston, Les paroles de Jesus recemment decouver- 
tes en Egypt, Paris, 1898. 

Bruston, Fragment d'un ancien recueil de paroles de 
Jesus, Paris, 1905. 

Bunsen, Analecta Antenicaena, London, 1856. 

Causse, Les nouveaux Logia de Jesus, Paris, 1898. 

Cersoy, Quelques Remarques sur les Logia de Beh- 
nesa (Revue Biblique, 1898, pp. 415-420). 

Cersoy, L' Univ. Cathol., 1898, 150-153 (on the sec- 
ond logion). 

Chiapelli in Nuova Antologia, 1897, 524-534. 

Chiapelli Nuove pagine sul Christianesimo antico, 
Florence, 1902, p. 31 sq., note i. 

Christie in the New World (Boston, 1897), p. 576 sq. 

Church Quarterly Review, October, 1897. 

Clemen, Neugefundene Jesusworte (Christliche Welt, 
1897, 702-705. 

Coburn, The recently discovered sayings of Christ 
(Homiletic Review, 1897, 505-510). 

Congregationalist (Boston, 1897), Aug. 19. 

Cotton, The Logia not Pantheistic (Biblia, November, 

Critical Review of Theolog. and Philosophical Litera- 
ture, October, 1897. 

Cross in Expositor, 1897, 257-267. 

D. R. J. Sentences de Jesus (Revue Benedict., 1897, 

Deissmann, in Beilage No. 162 zur (Miinchener) 

Allgem. Zeitung, July 18, 1904. 
Dodd, J. F., Sayings ascribed to the Lord by the 


Fathers and other primitive writers, Oxford, 

Donehoo, The Apocryphal and Legendary Life of 

Christ, New York, 1903, p. 242 sq. 
Durand in Les Eltudes, Aug. 5, 1897. 
Egypt Exploration Fund, October, 1897. 
Esser in KathoHk, 1898, 26-43, ^37-^5^- 
Fabricius, J. A., Codex Apocryphus Novi Test. I, p. 

Fischer, The New Logia of Jesus (Expository Times, 

1897, 140-143). 

Flinders-Petrie, The Harvest from Egypt (in Leisure 

Hour, September, 1897). 
Gebhardt, von, in Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1897, 

Grabe, J. E., Spicilegium SS Patrum et Haereticorum 

saec. i-III, 1698. 
Grenf ell-Hunt, Sayings of our Lord, London, 1897. 
Grenfell-Hunt, New Sayings of Jesus and a Fragment 

of a lost Gospel, London — New York, 1904. 
Guardian, The, 1897, July 21, 28; Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25; 

Sept. I ; 1898, Feb. 9. 
Hamack, Ueber die jiingst entdeckten Spriiche Jesu, 

Freiburg, 1897 (translated in the Expositor, 

November-December, 1 897 ) . 
Harris, J. R., The Logia and the Gospels (Contem- 
porary Review, 1897, August, September). 
Heinrici in Theolog. Literaturzeitung 1897, 449 sq., 

1898, 229. 

■ Heinrici, Die neuen Herrenspriiche (Theol. Studien 
und Kritiken, 1905, 188-210. 
Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, Tiibingen- 
Leipzig, 1904, 7 sq. 


Hennecke, Handbuch zu den Neutestamentlichen 
Apokryphen, ibid., 1904, pp. XII sq., 17-20. 

Hicks in Manchester Guardian, 1904, June 18. 

Hilgenfeld, Neue Logia Jesu (Zeitschrift fuer wissen- 
schaftl. Theologie, 1904). 

Hilgenfeld, Die neuesten Logia — Funde von Oxy- 
rhynchus (ibid,, 1905, 1906). 

Hofmann, R., das Leben Jesu nach den Apocryphen, 
Leipzig, 185L 

Holtzmann in Protest. Monatshefte, 1897, 385-392. 

Holtzmann, Theologischer Jahresbericht, XVII 
(1897), 116-118. 

Horder, Newly found Words of Jesus, London, 1905. 

Independent (New York), 1897, July 22; Aug. 12, 
19, 26; Sept. 2, 9, 23; Nov. 25; 1898, May 26; 
Oct. 6. 

Jackson, B., Twenty-five Agrapha, London, 1900. 

Jacobs, On the New Logia (Jewish Quarterly Re- 
view, 1897, 185-190). 

Jacobus, The Newly discovered Sayings of Jesus 
(Hartford Seminary Record VIII, 5-17). 

Jacquier in L' Univ. Cathol., 1897, 562-572; 1899, 

Jacquier in Melanges de litter, et de Thist. relig. pub- 
lies a I'occasion du jubilee epist. de Msr. Ca- 
brieres I (1899), PP- 49-79- 

James, M. R., The New Sayings of Christ (Contem- 
porary Review, 1897, August, September). 

Jiilicher in Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1897, 921- 

Klopper, Dicta Christi Apocrypha (in Kieler Theol. 

Mitarbeiten, 1839). 
Klostern^ann, Agrapha (being Part III of Apocrypha 


in Lietzmann, Kleine Texte fuer theologische 

Vorlesungen und Uebungen, Bonn, 1904). 
Klostermann, Zu den Agrapha (Zeitschrift, fiir neu- 

test. Wissenschaft, 1905, part I). 
Komer, de sermonibus Christi dypa<^ots, Lipsiae, 1776. 
Kriiger in Literarisches Centralblatt, 1897, 1025- 

Kriiger, Geschichte der Altchristlichen Litteratur, 

Freiburg, 2d ed. 1898, Appendix 12 sq. 
Lake, The New Sayings of Jesus and the Synoptic 

Problem (Hibbert Journal, January, 1905). 
Lataix, Une nouvelle serie d'Agrapha (Revue d'his- 

toire et de literature religeuse, 1897, pp. 433-438. 
Literary World, 1897, July 31. 
Look, W., Agrapha (Expositor, 1894, pp. 1-16, 97- 

Look, W., The Value of the " New Sayings of 

Jesus" (Interpreter, 1905, January). 
Lock and Sanday, Two lectures on the ** Sayings of 

Jesus," Oxford, 1897. 
Meyer, A., in Evangel. Gemeindeblatt fiir Rheinland 

und Westfalen, 1897, No. 30. 
Nestle, Novi Testamenti Graeci Supplementum, Lip- 
siae, 1896. 
Nosgen, die in ^gypten gefundenen Spriiche Jesu 

(Beweis des Glaubens, 41 (1905), September). 
New Sayings of Jesus (Church Quarterly Review, 

July, 1904). 
Nicolassen, the Logia of Jesus (Presbyt. Quarterly, 

1898, 93-97). 
Pfleiderer, O., Das Urchristenthum, seine Schriften 

und Lehren, Berlin, 1902, II (2d ed.), 169 sq. 
Pick, B., Sayings Traditional of Christ, in McClin- 


tock and Strong's Cyclop, of Biblical, Theological 

and Ecclesiastical Literature, Vol.' IX (New 

York, 1880), p. 392 sq. 
Pick, B., Apocryphal Life of Jesus, New York, 1887, 

p. 124 sq. 
Pick, B., The Talmud, what it is and what it knows 

of Jesus and His followers, ibid., 1890, p. 120 

sq. (two Talmudic Agrapha). 
Pick, B., The Agrapha or Unrecorded Sayings of 

Jesus Christ (Open Court, Chicago), 1897, p. 

525 sq. 
Pick, B., The Extra-Canonical Life of Christ, New 

York, 1903, p. 251 sq. 
Plumptre in Ellicott's New Test. Commentary for 

English Readers I, p. xxxiii. 
Presbyterian and Reformed Review, October, 1897. 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, Gieszen, 1901 ; 2d ed. 1905. 
Preuschen, Zur Vorgeschichte des Evangelienkanons, 

ibid., 1905 (programme). 
Rauschen, Florilegium Patristicum, Bonn, 1905, fasc. 


Rawnsley, Sayings of Jesus: six village sermons on 
the Papyrus Fragment, London, 1897. 

Rawnsley, Sayings of Jesus and a Lost Gospel Frag- 
ment, ibid., 1905. 

Record, the, 1897, Aug. 6. 

Redpath in Expositor, 1897, 224-230. 

Reitzenstein, Ein Zitat aus den Logia Jesu (Zeit- 
schrift fur d. neutest. Wissenschaft 1905, part 


Resch, Agrapha, Ausserkanonische Evangelienfrag- 
mente (Texte und Untersuchungen, 1889, V 4) ; 
new edition, 1906. 


Rhijn, Nieuwe " woorden van Jezus " (Theol. Stu- 
dien, 1897, pp. 403-414). 

Robinson, in Expositor,* 1897, 417-421. 

Ropes, die Spriiche Jesu (Texte und Untersuchun- 
gen, 1896, XIV, 2). 

Ropes, Agrapha (in Hasting's Dictionary of the 
Bible, Vol. 5, Edinburgh, 1904). 

Saturday Review, 1897, J^^y 24. 

Scarborough Post, 1897, Aug. 12. 

Schaff, History of the Christian Church, New York 
I (1882), pp. 162-167. 

Scholz in Theol. Quartalschrift, 1900, 1-22 (on the 
4th Logion). 

Selbie, the recently discovered Logia (Expository 
Times, 1897, pp. 68-69). 

Shahan, Thos. J., The Agrapha or *' Unwritten Say- 
ings *' of our Lord (Ecclesiastical Review, De- 
cember, 1901). 

Speaker, the, July 17, 1897. 

Spectator, the, July 17, 1897. 

Swete, The Oxyrhynchus Fragment (Expository 
Times, 1897, 544~55o, 558 sq.). 

Swete, the New Oxyrhynchus Sayings (Expository 
Times, 1904, pp. 488-495). 

Tasker in London Quarterly Review, 1904 (XII), 


Taylor, Chas., The Oxyrhynchus Logia and the Apoc- 
ryphal Gospels, Oxford, 1899. 

Taylor, Chas., The Oxyrhypchus Sayings of Jesus 
found in 1903 with the Sayings called " Logia " 
found in 1897, Oxford, 1905. 

Taylor, Chas. The Oxyrhynchus and other Agrapha 
(in Journal of theological studies, Vol. VII 
(1906), No. 28). 


Theologisch Tijdschrift, September, 1897. 
Thompson, the Sayings of our Lord (Sunday at 

Home, September, 1897). 
Togel, Neue Spriiche Jesu (Katechetische Zeitschrift, 

VIII (1905), parts 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). 
Trabaud, Les nouvellles paroles de Jesus (Revue de 

theol. et de phil., 1898, pp. 79-84). 
Votaw, C. W., The newly discovered " Sayings of 

Jesus" (Biblical World, 1904). 
Votaw, C. W., The Oxyrhynchus sayings of Jesus in 

relation to the Gospel-making movement of the 

First and Second Centuries (Journal of Biblical 

Literature, 1905, p. 79 sq.). 
Warschauer, J., Jesus saith. Studies in some " New 

Sayings " of Christ, London, 1905. 
Weiss, J., in Theolog. Rundschau, 1898, 227-236. 
Westcott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, 

London i860; Boston 1867. 
Whitehall Record, Aug. 7, 1897. 
Workman, the Sayings of Jesus, a new suggestion 

(Expository Times, January, 1906). 
Wright, the New Sayings of Jesus (Bibl. Sacra., 1897, 

Zahn, die jiingst gefundenen Ausspriiche Jesu (theol. 
Literaturblatt, 1893, Sept. 3, 10; transl. into Eng- 
lish in Lutheran Church Review, Philadelphia, 


Anonym., Das Evangelium und die Apokalypse Simon 

Petri, Miinster, 1893. 
Anonym., The Gospel of Peter (Academy, 1892, 509). 


Anonym., The Gospel of Peter (Church Quarterly 
Review, 1893, 384-416). 

Anonym., The Gospel according to Peter, A study 
by the author of the supernatural Religion, Lon- 
don, 1894. 

Badham, E. P., The new apocryphal literature 
(Athenaeum, Dec. 17, 1892, 854 sq. ; May 13, 

1893, 605 sq.; Academy, 1893, 9i-;93, m sq.). 
Baljon, Het evangelic van Petrus (Theol. Studien, 

1894, 1-34). 

Baljon, Het evangelic en de openbaring van Petrus, 
Utrecht, 1896. 

Baring-Gould, Lost and Hostile Gospels, p. 219 sq. 

Barnes, W. E., The Gospel of Peter and the Didasca- 
lia (Academy 43 (1893), 547). 

Bennett, E. N., The Gospel according to Peter (Clas- 
sical Review 7 (1893), 40-42). 

Bernard, J. H., The Gospel according to Peter 
(Academy 42 (1892), 593; 44 (1893), 275). 

Bonwetsch, Aus dem "Evangel, des Petrus" (Mit- 
theilungen u. Nachrichten fuer die Evangel. 
Kirche in Russland, 1892, 538-543). 

Bouriant, Fragments du texte grec du livre d'Enoch 
et de quelques ecrits attribues a saint Pierre 
(Memoires publics par les membres de la mission 
archeologique frangaise au Caire IX, i, Paris, 
1892, 93-147). 

Bradner, The Gospel of Peter, the Revelation of 
Peter (Biblical World, 1893, January, 33-35). 

Bratke, Neu entdeckte Stiicke der Jiidischen und Alt- 
christlichen Literatur (Theol. Literaturblatt, 
1892, 567-570, 575-578; 1893, 73-79, 99-102, 


Bruston, De quelques passages obscurs de Tevangile 

de Pierre (Revue de theol. et des questions relig., 

1893, 371-380). 
Chapuis, L*evangile et Tapocalypse de Pierre (Revue 

de theol. et de philos., 1893, 338-355). 
Chiappelli, I frammenti era scoperti d'un' evangelio 

e d'un' apocalisse di Pietro (Nueva Antologia, 

Serie 3, 46 (1893), 212-238). 
Conybeare, Had Polycarp the Gospel of Peter in his 

hands (Academy 44 (1893), 568-569. 
Cross, the Akhmim fragment and the fourth Gbsj>el 

(Expositor, 1894, 320). 
Davies, The Gospel and Apocr. of Peter and other 

discoveries (Baptist, 1893, 19, 39). 
Ehrhard, Altchristliche Litteratur, 127-135. 
Funk, Fragmente des Evangeliums und der Apok. 

des Petrus (Theol. Quartalschrift 75 (1893), 

Gebhardt, von, das Evangelium und die Apokalypse 

des Petrus, Leipzig, 1893. 
Hall, J. H., The newly discovered apocryphal Gos- 
pel of Peter (Biblical World, 1893, 88-98). 
Harnack, Bruchstiicke des Evangeliums und der 

Apokalypse des Petrus (in Sitzungsberichte der 

Berliner Akademie, 1892, 895-903, 949-965). 
Harnack, die nepentdeckten Bruchstiicke des Petrus- 

evang. und der Petrusapok. (Preuss. Jahrbiicher 

71 (1893), 3^58). 
Harnack, Bruchstucke des Evangeliums und der 

Apok. des Petrus (Texte und Untersuchungen 

IX, -^(1893). 
Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur i 

(1893), ia-12; 2, I (1897), 474 sq., 622-625. 


Hamack, Ueber die jiingsten Entdeckungen, etc. 
(Preuss. Jahrbiicher 92 (1898), 199 sq.). 

Hamack, Theolog. Literaturzeitung 18 (1894), 9- 

Harris, J. R., A popular account of the newly dis- 
covered Gospel of St. Peter, London, 1893. 

Harris, The structure of the Gospel of Peter (Con- 
temporary Review (1893, 212-236). 

Headlam, A. C., The Akhmim fragments (Classical 
Review 7 (1893, 458-463). 

Hilgenfeld, das Petrusevangelium (Zeitschrift fuer 
wissenschaftliche Theologie 36, i (1893), 439- 
454; 2, 160, 220-267). 

Jacquier, L'evangile selon S. Pierre (L'Univ. cathol., 

1893, 5-29). 

Kihn, Ein patristischer Fund (Katholik, 1893, i> ^97" 

Klostermann, Apocrypha I, 1-7; H, 17-18. 
Koch, das Petrusevangelium und unsere Kanon. 

Evangelien (Kirchliche Monatsschrift 15 (1896), 

Krieg, Litteratur zum " Evangelium und zur Apok- 
alypse des Petrus '' (Litterarische Rundschau, 

1894, 7-10). 

Kriiger, Altchristliche Litteratur, Freiburg, 1898, p. 

33 sq. 
Kunze, Das Petrusevangelium (Neue Jahrbiicher fuer 

Deutsche Theologie 2 (1893), 583-604). 
Kunze, Das neu aufgefundene Bruchstiick des soge- 

nannten Petrusevangeliums (ibersetzt und beur- 

theilt, Leipzig, 1893. 
L^gge, Some heretic Gospels (Scottish Review, 1893, 



Leipoldt, Entstehung des Neutest. Kanons, 1907, pp. 

118, 131, 134, 141, 177. 
Lejay, L'evangile de Pierre (Revue des etudes grecq. 

6 (1893), 59-84, 267-270). 
Lods, Fragments d'evangile et d'apocalypse decouverts 

en Egypte (Revue de Thist. d. relig. 26 (1892), 

Lods, Evangelium secundum Petrum et Petri Apoc. 

quae supersunt, Paris, 1892. 
Lods, L'Evangile et rapocal)rpse de Pierre publics 

pour la premiere fois d'apres la photographie du 

manuscript de Giseh, etc., Paris, 1893. 
Lundborg, Dek s. K. Petrusevangeliet, ett nyfunnet 

fragment ur en fornkristlig apokryf., Lund, 

1893; 2d ed. 1894. 
McGiffert, The Gospel of Peter (Papers of the 

American Society of Church History VI (New 

York, 1894), 99-130). 
Mallinckrodt, Het Bericht van Serapion (Geloof en 

Vrijheid, 1895, 435-455; 1896, 33-109. 
Manen, van, Het evangelic van Petrus, Leyden, 1893. 
Manen, van, Het evangelic van Petrus (Theol. 

Tijdschr. 27 (1893), 3i7-333» 379-43^, 517- 

Martineau, On the Gospel of Peter (Academy, 43 

(1893), 441). 
Murray, Evangelium secundum Petrum (Expositor, 

1893. 55-61). 
Nestle, Novi Test. Graeci Supplementum, pp. 68-72. 
Nestle, Luke XXIV, 4; Acts I, 10 und das Petrus- 

evang. (Evangel. Kirchenblatt fuer Wiirttemberg, 

1893, No. 4). 
Nicholson, E. W. B., The Gospel according to Peter 

(Academy 42 (1892), 567). 

felBLiOGRAPHV 14:^ 

Nosgen, der Fund von Akhmim (Evangel. Kirchcn- 
zeitung, 1893, 125-128, 141-144, i49-iSo). 

Piccolomini, Sul testo dei frammenti deir Evangelic 
e deir Apocalissi del pseudo-Pietro, Rome 1899 
(reprint from the " Rendiconti della R. Accad. 
dei Lincei, classe di scienze morali, storiche e 
filologiche, Serie 5 a, 8 (1899), 389 sq.) ; comp. 
Harnack, Theol. Litteraturzeitung, 1900, 137- 

Preuschen, Antilegomena, 15 sq., 145 sq. 

Rauschen, die wichtigeren neuen Funde aus dem 
Gebiete der altesten Kirchengeschichte, Bonn, 
1905, pp. 27-37. 

Redpath, the Gospel according to Peter (Academy 
42 (1892), 544). 

Reinach, L'evangile de St. Pierre, Paris, 1893. 

Robinson, J. A., The Gospel according to Peter (New 
World, 1894, 690-704) ; English translation in 
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IX (New York, 1896). 

Robinson and James, The Gospel according to Peter 
and the Revelation of Peter. Two lectures; 2d. 
ed. London, 1892. 

Rutherford, Synoptical Table of the Four Canonical 
Gospels and the Gospel according to Peter (in 
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IX, p. 10 sq.). 

Sabatier, L'evangile de Pierre et les evangiles 
canoniques, Paris, 1893. 

Sandys, An emendation of the Gospel of Peter (Acad- 
emy 43 (1893), 486). 

Schubert, von, Neue Funde auf dem Gebiete der 
urchristlichen Litteratur I. II (Christliche Welt, 
1893, 7-12, 5c^54). 

Schubert, von, Die Composition des pseudo-petrinis- 


chen Evangelienfragments untersucht, Berlin, 

Schubert, von, Das Petrusevangelium, Synoptische 

Tabelle der 5 Evangelien nebst Uebersetzung und 

Krit. Apparat, Berlin, 1893 (Engl, transl. by 

Macpherson, Edinburg, 1893). 
Schiirer, in Theol. Litteraturzeitung, 1892, 609-612, 

1893, 33-37. 
Seesewann, Ein neuer Zeuge fuer die Glaubwiirdig- 

keit der alten Evangelien ( Mittheilungen und 

Nachrichten fuer die evang. Kirche in Russland, 

1893, 455-466). 
Semeria, L*evangile du Pierre (Revue biblique 3 

(1894), 522-560). 
Soden, von, Das Petrusevangelium und die Kanonis- 

chen Evangelien (Zeitschrift fiir Theologie und 

Kirche, 3 (1893), 52-92). 
Stanton, in Journal of theological Studies II, 1901, 

p. 1-25. 
Stocks, Zum Petrusevangelium (Neue Kirchliche 

Zeitschrift, 1902, 276-314, 515-542). 
Stiilcken in Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokry- 

phen, pp. 27-32 and Handbuch, pp. 72-88. 
Swete, The apocryphal Gospel of Peter. The Greek 

text of the newly discovered fragment, London, 

1892, revised edition 1893). 
Swete, EuayycAtov /caret Pcrpov. The Akhmin fragment 

of the apocryphal Gospel of Peter edited with an 

introduction, notes and indices, London, 1893. 
Taylor, Justin Martyr and the Gospel of Peter 

(Classical Review, 7 (1893), 246-248). 
Tyler, *' The Lord " in the Gospel of Peter (Academy 

44 (1893), 94, 27.5 sq.). 
Vetter, das Neuaufgcfundene Evangelium des Petrus 


ubersetzt und eingeleitet (Schweizerische Rund- 
schau, 1893, 167-176). 

Volter, Petrusevangelium oder iEgypterevangelium ? 
Tubingen, 1893, also in Zeitschrift fiir die neutest. 
Wissenschaft u. die Kunde des Urchristentums 
VI (1905), part 4. 

Wabnitz, Les fragments de Tevangile et de Tapoc- 
alypse de St Pierre (Revue de theol. et des 
que$tions relig., 1893, 280-294, 353-370, 474- 

Weyman, Das Evangelium und die Apokalypse des 

Petrus (Blatter fiir das Bayerische Gymnasial- 

schulwesen 30 (1894), 81-89). 
Wilamowitz-Mollendorf, von, Einige Konjekturen 

und Bemerkungen am Schlusse seiner Abhand- 

lung in dem Index Scholarum von Gottingen, 

Sommersemester, 1893, 31-33. 
Zahn, Das Evangelium des Petrus, Leipzig, 1893. 


Ehrhard, Allchristliche Litteratur, pp. 138, 146. 
Harnack, Ein jiingst entdeckter Auferstehungs- 

bericht (in theologische Studien, B. Weiss zu 

seinem 70. Geburt stage dargebracht) Gottingen, 

1897,. pp. 1-8. 
Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, pp. 36 sq., 

38 sq., Handbuch 389 sq. 
Jacoby, A. Ein Neues Evangelienfragment, Strasburg, 

Jacoby in Sphinx VI, 3, pp. 132-142. 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, p. 83 sq., 115. 
Schmidt, Eine bisher unbekannte altchristliche 

Schrift in Koptischer Sprache (in Sitzungs- 


berichte der Berliner Akademie, 1895, p. 705- 

Schmidt, in Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1900, pp. 

Schmidt, Acta Pauli, Leipzig, 1904. 
Zahn in Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift, 1900, pp. 361- 



The literature is given under IX&. As these sayings 
contain also such as are found in the Kerygma 
Petri, which we have given entire for the bene- 
fit of the student, we add here also the literature 
pertaining to The Kerygma Petri. 

Von Dobschiitz, das Kerygma Petri (Texte und 
Untersuchungen XI, i), 1893. 

Ehrhard, die altchristliche Litteratur, pp. 135-136. 

Harnack, Altchristliche Litteraturgeschichte I, 25- 
28; II, I, 472-474. 

Hennecke, Handbuch der Apokryphen, 239-247. 

Hilgenfeld, Novum Testamentum extra IV^, 51-65. 

Hilgenfeld, Zeitschrift fuer wiss. TheoL, 1893, 518- 

Klostermann, Apocrypha I (1903), p. 13 sq. 
Kruger, Altchristliche Litteratur, 11898, p. 38 sq. 
Leipoldt, Entstehung des Neutest. Kanons, 1907, p. 

234, 250. 
Preuschen, Antilegomena, p. 88. 
Robinson, Appendix to Harris The Apology of Aris- 

tides (Texts and Studies I, i, 1891, pp. 86-99). 
Zahn, Gesch. des Neut. Kanons II, 820-832. 

filBLIOGRAfHY 1$1 


Besides the works mentioned already in connection 

with the Gospel of Peter, we name: 
Baljon, De Openbaring van Petrus (Theol. Studien, 

1894, 35-48). 
Bradke, Handschriftliche Ueberlieferung und Bruch- 

stiicke der Arabisch-^thiopischen Petrus-Apok- 

alypse (Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Theo- 

logie 36, I (1893), 454-493. 
Chiapelli, II nuovo frammento dell' Apocalisse di 

Pietro (Nuova Antologia Serie 3, 47 (1893), 

I 12-122). 
Dieterich, Nekyia, Leipzig, 1893; and Schmidt, re- 
view of the work in Theologische Literaturzei- 

tung XIX, 1894, 560-565). 
Ehrhard, Altchristliche Litteratur, 147 sq. 
Harnack, Altchristl. Litteraturgesch. I, 29-33; H* i> 

Harnack, die Petrusapokalypse in der alten abend- 

landischen Kirche (Texte und Untersuchungen 

XIII, I (1895), 71-73). 
Hilgenfeld, Novum Test, extra canonem IV^, 71-74. 
Holtzmann, Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Ein- 

leitung in dcs Neue Test. 3d ed. 1892, 500. 
Klostermann, Apocrypha I (1903), 8-13. 
Kriiger, Altchristliche Litteratur, 23 sq. ; Supplement, 

p. II. 
Leipoldt, Entstehung des neutest. Kanons, pp. 32, 35, 

36, 47, 57, 75, 76, 78, 85, 87, 93, 94, 100, 102. 
Nicholson, The Revelation of Peter (Academy, 1893, 

Preuschen, Antilegomena, 84 sq. 


Simms, Second Petri and the Apocalypse of Peter 

(Expositor, 1898, II, 460-471). 
Weinel in Handbuch der Apokryphen, herausgg. von 

Hennecke, 1894, 285-290. 
Zahn, Gesch. des Neutest. Kanons II, 810-820. 


I. Passages quoted or referred to 


2 Chronicles 

xxiv, 20 9 


V, 8 112 


Ixvi, 24 118 


xi, 2 3 


J, 7 112 

V, I 2 


xii, 1-6 82 

Wisdom of Solomon 

xviii, 17 58 


ii, 5 2, 56 

15, 23 2, 3 

iii, I seq 16 

3 seq 16 

13 3, 16 

16 seq 3 

iv, I, 8 4 

5 5 

12 ; ix, 9 seq 17 

V, 21 seq 13 

vi, 8 60 

II 5 

vii, 6 76 

X, 15 69 

23 60 

xi, 24 69 

xii, 9-13 5 

36 60 

47 seq 18 

xvi, 17 6 

xvii, 20 56 

27 60 



xviii, 6 seq 13 

21, 22 6 

31 13 

xix, 16 seq 6, 7 

XX, 28 60 

xxi, 9 8 

• 21 56 

xxiii, 35 8 

XXV, 14 seq 10 

35 seq 106 

36 106 

xxvi, 17 seq 18 

..74 10 

xxvii, 16 10 

51 II 

62 II, 12 

xxviii, 17 12 


iv, 9 61 

ix, 46 61 

X, 29, 30 91 

44, 45 118 

xi, 23 56 

xiii, 14 38 

Z7 61 

xiv, 26-30 18 


iii, 23 17 

vi, 4 61 

vii, 22 56 

ix, 55, 56 63 

X, 16 63 

xi, 2 63 

xvi, 118 

xix, 2-10 26 


i, 45 seq 27 

ii, 4 57 



John PAGE 

iii, 21 40 

vi, 5, 7 27 

vii, 53; viii, II 13 

xii, 21 seq 27 

xiv, 8 seq 27 

xvii, 26 63 

xix, 26-30 64 

XX, 12 38 

xxi, 23 91 

Acts PAGE 

vi, 5 27 

viii, 5 seq 27 

xxi, 8 seq 27 

xxiii, 14 12 

I Corinthians 

xi, 26 71 

XV, 7 II 

I John 

i, 6 46 

II. Authors quoted or referred to. 

Abaelard 82 

Abgari Epistola, c. 2 65 

Acts of John 15 

Paul 106 

Philip 65,66, 108 

Thomas 36 

Actus Petri cum Simone 66 

Addai, Doctrine of ..65, 66 

Agathangelus 66 

Albigenses 26 

Alford 62 

Ambrose 66 

Anastasius Sinaita 67 

Ancient Syriac Docu- 
ments 67 

Anecdota Maredsolana. . 5 

Apelles in Epiphan 67 

Aphraates ed. Bert 

p. 15 67 

p. 66 67 

p. 70 68 

p. 278 68 

Apollonius 96 

Apostolic Church Ordi- 
nances 68 

Constitutions ...69, 70 71 

Aristotle 25 

Athenagoras 7i 

Augustin 72, 82 


5, 7, 9, II, 12, 20, 21, 26 
28, 29, 30 


vi, 13 72 

vii, II 72 

Baruch, Apocalypse of . . 90 

Basilides 24, 25 

Bemhard 82 

Bickell 30 

Blass 35 

Boehmer 58 

Bouriant 42, 117 

Breviarium Romanum . . 104 

Bryennios 82 

Bunsen 71 

Cassian 20,21, 72 

Cassiodorus 72 

Catalogus Claromonta- 

nus 117 

Ceriani 91 

Charles 90 

Chiapelli 31 

Chrysostom 76 

Ciasca 63 

Clemens Alexandrinus 

Protr. X, 94 70, 73 

Hypotyposes 115 

Fragmenta 70 

Eclogae prophet 

76, 93, 116, 124 

Excerpta ex Theodoto 

2 76 

67 19 


i, 8,41 73 

19, 94 73 

24, 158 73 

28, 177 74 

29, 182 93 . 

ii, 9. 45 14, 26 

15, 68 93 

71 73 





iii, 4» 26 26 

6, 45 19 

9, 63 22 

64 19 

66 20 

I3» 92 21 

15, 97 75 

99 34 

iv, 6, 34 73 

35 27 

V, 8, 53 77 

10, 64 75 

14, 96 14 

vi, 5, 39 seq 96 

, 43 96 

6, 48 97 

7, 58 94 

15, 128 98 

vii, 13, 82 26 

I7» 108 25 

Clemens Romanus 

i, 13, 2 ^^ 

46, 2 77 

ij, 4, 5 17 

5, 2-4 ^^ 

8,5, 6 78 

12, 2, 4, 5 21 

Clement. Homilies 

ii, 8, 5. 6 78 

17 78 

iii, 52 79 

53 79 

55 79 

vii, 4 79 

X, 3 79 

xi, 4 79 

26 80 

xii, 29 80 

32 79 

xiii, 14 80 

xvi, 21 80 

xix, 2 80 

Epitome 80 

Codex Algerinae Peck- 
over 60 

Askew 81, 96 

Pobb. Taur 61 


C. of the Palest. Syriac 

Library 60 

Colbertinus 63 

D or Bezae 60, 61, 63 

Evang. 566 5, 6, 10 

604 63 

of the Templars 64 

Cross 35 

Cyrillus Hierosolymita- 
niis Catech. 

iv, 31 23 

36 23 

Delitzsch 74 

Derenbourg 113 

Dialogus de recta fide . . 81 

i, 5 70 

6 81 

Didascalia ed. de Lagarde 

iv, 3 70 

V, 15 82 

vi, 5 80 

ed. Hauler 

p. 53 ; . . . . 70 

ed Achelis-Flemming 

p. 107 83 

p. 127 83 

Didymus 80, 83, 105 

Edersheim 113 

Ehrhard 22, 24 

Ephraem Syrus 
Ev. Concord, ed. Mosinger 

p. 50 83 

p. 63 84 

p. 94 60 

p. 165 84 

p. 200 84 

p. 203 84 

p. 211 84 

Opera ed. Assemani 

i, 30 E 85 

iii, 93. E 85 


Ancor, c. 21 83 

c. 53 85 

Haer. xxiii, 5 85 

xxvi, 2 seq. ... 30 




Haer. xxvi, 5 30 

xxvi, 13 28 

XXX, 3 15 

6 IS 

13 ..15, 16 17 

14 16, 18 

16 18 

22 18 

xxxiv, 18 88 

xli, 3 85 

Ixii, 2 19 

Ixvi, 42 85 

Ixix, 44 83 

53 85 

63 85 

Ixxvi, 6 85 

Ixxx, 5 85 

Hist. Eccles. 

i, 13, 10 65 

II 36 

ii, 23 12 

iii, 3» 2 4i» "o 

25, 5 2, 116 

6 23 

27, 4 I 

36, II 13, 87 

39, 17 13 

iv, 22, 8 2 

vi, 12, 2-6 42 

14 115 

Theophania 10, 14 

in Ps. xvi, 2 ; 73 

Euthymius Zigabenus . . 85 

Fabricius 71 

Farrar 62, 90 

Gregor. Magnus 82 

Gregor. of Tours 12 

Grenfell-Hunt 31 

Grotius 62 


24, 27, 31, 43, 51, 57, 105 

Heavenly Dialogue 104 

Hegesiphus 12 

Hennecke 53 


Hermas 7o 

in Jesaiam 

xi, 2 4 

9 4 

xvii, 13 

in Ezek. 

xvi, 13 4 

xviii, 7 13 

in Mic. vii, 7 4 

in Ps. cxxxv 5 

in Matt. 

ii, 5 2 

vi, II 5 

xii, 13 6 

xxiii, 35 9 

xxvii, 16 10 

51 " 

in Ephes. v, 4 14 

adv. Pelag. iii, 2 3, 6 

de viris inlust. 

2 12 

3 3 

16 13, 87 

Opera ed. Martianay 

iii, 807 86 

iv, 521 86 

584 86 

Epist XX, 5 ad Dama- 

sum 8 

Hilarius 78 

Hilgenfeld 68 


V, 7 19, 24 

vii, 20 25 

Comment in Dan. iv. . 89 

Hofmann loi 

Ignatius ad Smym iii, i, * 

2 12, 87 


i, 20, 2 88 

26, 2 I 

ii, 34, 3 78 

iii, 17, 4 88 

V. 33, 3 89 

36, 2 92 

eis epideixin 92 




Isidorus 25 

Jacoby 53 

Jackson 34, 62, 75, 78, 106 

Jacques de Voragine ... 12 

Jeu, I, book of 86 

Justin Martyr 

Apolog. i, 15 92 

Dial. c. Tr)rph. ' 

c. 12 34, 92 

35 80, 93 

93 79 

de resurr. c. 9 93 

Juvencus 61 

Kerygma Petri 

...•93, 94, 95. 96, 97. 98 

...35, 37 f 73y 78, 106, 113 
Koran 98, 99, 100 

Lactantius 80 

Liturgy of Alexandria.. 103 

James 71, 93 

Mark 71 

Severus 93 

Lock 35 


Apocritica iv, 6 ...116, 125 

de oratione 10 103 


xii, 17 103 

xxxvii, I 103 

Mai 10 

Martyrium Petri 93 

Matthaei 9 

Methodius 1 16, 125 

Muratorian Fragment. 88, 115 

Nestle 63 


Stichometry 2, 22, 117 

Hist. Eccles. iii, 15 . . . 26 

Nosgen 31 

Old English Homilies . . 104 

Optatus 61 

Oracula Sibyllina 82 



De princip. Prooem. I 
8, 13, 87 

de oratone H, 14 74 

against Celsus 

vii. 44 74 

vm, 15 104, 105 

16 105 

in Levit. x, 2 105 

in Psalm, iv 74 

in Jerem. 

viii, 7 69 

xiv, 5 105 

XV, 4 4 

XX, 3 105 

in Matt. 

X, 17 40 

xiii, 2 105 

XV, 14 7 

comment, 76 69 

in Joann 

ii, 12 4 

xiii, 17 95 

XX, 12 106 

scholion 10 

Pamphilus 2 

Papias 13, 89 

Peter, doctrine of 13, 87 

Petrus Comestor 82 

Philippus 107 

Pick I 

Piers the Plowman 82 

Pistis Sophia . . .81, 1*07, 108 

Plato 14, 26 

Play of the Sacrament. . 104 

Plumptre 61 

Polycarp 108 

Preuschen . .2, 35, 37, 53, 78 


de aleatoribus c. 3, 4, 5 109 

de duobus montibus . . 109 

de singularitate cler. . . 109 

Pseudo-Hieronymus 92 

to the Magnesians 

ix, 3 no 

to the Trallians 

vi no 

vii no 




Pseudo-Linus 65, 93, iii 

Renan 74 

Resch ....63, 68, 74, 78, 82 
Ropes . .62, 69, 74, 78, 90, 113 

Sadi 103 

Salvianus 11 1 

Sanday 35 

Schaff 75, 78, 81, 90 

Schmidt 53, 54, 56, 57 

Schiirer 90,113 

Serapion 41 

Sergius iii 

Shahan 91 

Smith 100 

Swete 36, Z7. 38 

Symmachus i 

Syr. Curet 61, 63 

Talmud 112,114 


Taylor 35 


orat., c. 26 y^ 

baptis., 20 114 

paenit, c. 11 114 

adv. Jud., c. 4 92 

Theodoret 40, 76 

Theodorus Balsamo 114 

Theodotus Monachus ... 115 

Tischendorf 5, 6 

Tottermann 113 

Vita Schnudi 115 

Vita Syncleticae 81 

Warnerus loi 

Westcott 62, 74, 90 

Woide 96 


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